Most Important Questions

HBSE Annual Exams 2022 Class 10 English

Literature: 30 Marks (Prose and Poetry)

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Haryana Board class 10 English Literature 30 marks: All most important questions are given under. These are most probable, sure questions. Out of these, questions are asked in Haryana Board Annual Exams frequently. In Annual exams of Haryana Board Class 10 English four questions of two marks each from Footprints Without Feet and one question with internal choice will be asked for five marks in March 2022 exams.

Same way, four questions of two marks each are to be asked from First Flight and one question with internal choice will be asked for five marks. Poetry also will be having 2 marks and 5 marks questions. Thus we are giving you all important question for your Section D Literature. These are most important question from Exam point of view. So learn all these questions.

Your question will be like this:
Answer any four of the following questions in about 30-40 words each: 2 × 4 = 8
Lessonwise we are giving all important questions with Answers:

First Flight: Most Important Questions:

A Letter To God by G L Fuentus Lesson 1 First Flight
Before you go for learning questions, go for Summary video on youtube, first. It will be easy for you to understand the questions.

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(i) Why does the postmaster send the money to Lencho ? Why does he sign the letter 'God' ? 2
A: Lencho writes a letter to God for help, the postmaster reads the letter. He is impressed by Lencho’s faith in God. He does not want Lencho’s faith in God is shaken. So, he sends money to Lencho and signs as God so that Lencho can think that money is actually been sent by God.

(ii) How did the rain change ? What happened to Lencho's fields ? 2
A: His crop needed rain and he was hopeful seeing the clouds. Suddenly a strong wind began to blow and the rain turned into hailstorm. His corn crop was totally destroyed.

Answer in about 100 words : 5

(iii) Why did Lencho write a letter to God ? Did he get any help ? If yes, by whom ?
A: Hailstorm destroyed his crop totally. He had nothing with him now. He had deep faith in God. He wrote a letter to God for help. The letter was received by postmaster who read the letter. He was impressed by Lencho’s faith in God, he wanted to help him and he did not want to shake Lencho’s faith in God. So, with the help of his employees he collected seventy pesos and sent it to Lencho.

(iv) Why does the postmaster send the money to Lencho ? Why does he sign the letter 'God'? 5
Why did Lencho write a letter to God? Who received the letter and what did he do?

Watch our video on Youtube

Ans. Lencho was a hard-working farmer. His crop needed rain badly. But there came a hailstorm. It destroyed his crop completely. Lencho had no one to support him. He had no money. But he had firm faith in God. So, he decided to write a letter to God. The postmaster read the letter. He decided to help Lencho, So, he collected money from his employees and friends. He himself gave a part of his salary. He sent this money to Lencho.

Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

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(i) What ideals does he set out for the future of South Africa ? 2
A: He pledges that this beautiful land will not experience the oppression of one by another. He says that bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discrimination will end now.

(ii) What ideals does he set out for the future of South Africa? 2
Ans. He sets out the ideals for liberating all people of South Africa from various bondages. These are of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discriminations.

(iii) What does Mandela thank the international leaders for ? 2
A: Nelson Mandela thanks international leaders having come to join the spirit of common victory for justice, peace and human dignity.

(iv) What were two obligations that Mandela described in this lesson? 2

A: Mandela mentions that everyman has twin obligations. The first is to his family, parents, wife and children; the second obligation is to his people, his community and his country.

Answer in about 100 words : 5
(v) What were two obligations that Mandela described in this lesson ? What was the reason that he was not able to fulfil those obligations ?

Ans. The author talks about twin obligations. The first is the obligation to his family, to his parents, to his wife and children. The second is the obligation to his people, his community and his country. He says that in a civil society each one of us should fulfill these two obligations. He regrets that during the era of oppression no one in South Africa could fulfill these obligations. Any person who tried to live like a human being, was punished. Nelson Mandela was isolated from his family as well as society. So he could not fulfill these obligations. In the beginning, Nelson Mandela put his family above the countrymen. But later he devoted his life to the freedom of his people from slavery. He wishes that everyone in South Africa should fulfill these twin obligations.

Answer in about 100 words : 5

Lesson 3: Two Stories about Flying
His First Flight by Liam O’Flaherty

Summary Video lecture:

(i) "The sight of the food maddened him...." what does this suggest ? What compelled the young seagull to finally fly ? 2
Ans. This suggests that hunger is an important factor. No one can live without it. It can madden us. The young seagull is also maddened with it. He dives at the fish. But the mother moves upward. The seagull falls down into the sea. His wings start spreading. At last he begins to fly.Thus we see that hunger compelled the young seagull to fly.

Answer in about 100 words : 5

(ii) What message does, the story "His First Flight" convey ?
Ans. The author Liamo Flaherty wants to convey the idea that if we determine to do something, we can do it. Nothing is impossible. We can conquer our fear also. He teaches us this idea by the story of a seagull. He tells us about his first flight. The seagull was afraid to fly because he thought that his wings would not support him to fly. His family had made a lot of efforts to fly him, but all were useless. Then his mother made a plan. She flew towards him with a fish in her beak. The mother came within his reach. He dived at the fish but the mother averted herself. The seagull fell down into the sea. At first, he felt afraid. But after sometime, he collected his courage. His wings spread outwards. He flapped them. Now he started flying. In this way, we learnt that if we have courage to do something, then we can do it. In reality, it a story that is full of inspiration.

(iii) Write the story of the chapter "His First Flight". 5
Ans. "His First Flight" is the story of a young seagull. The young seagull was all alone on the ledge. His two brothers and sister had already flown away. He was afraid to fly. So, he could not fly with them. He had nothing to eat there. He saw his mother eating a fish. He begged her to bring him some food. His mother picked up a piece of fish in her beak and flew towards him. She stopped just opposite to him. The seagull was very hungry. So he dived to get the fish. He fell outwards and downwards. He got frightened. But he felt his wings spread outwards. He flew upwards. All the members of his family were encouraging him. He tried to land on the green sea. But his legs sank into the water. Then his belly touched the water. He found himself floating. Thus, he made his first flight.

The Black Aeroplane part 2

Summary Video lecture:

(i) What made the woman in the control centre look at the narrator strangely ? 2
Ans. The narrator entered the control centre where a woman was on duty. He asked her where the black aeroplane pilot was. But the woman looked at him strangely because there was no other plane on the radar except the narrator's plane.

Lesson 4: From The Diary of Anne Frank

(i) Why was Mr. Keesing annoyed with Anne ? What did he ask her to do ? 2
Ans. Mr Keesing was annoyed with Anne because she talked too much in the class. Usually, he g her extra howework as a punishment. One day, he asked her to write an essay on 'A Chatterbox'.

(ii) Why does Anne want to keep a diary ? 2
Ans. Anne wants a companion to whom she can share her feelings.But she has no true friend. That is the reason she wants to keep a diary as a companion.

(iii) Write the character sketch of Anne Frank. 5
Ans. Anne was born on 12th June, 1929. She was a Jewish girl. She had loving parents and an elder sister. She had thirty friends also. Anne lived in Frankfurt in Germany with her family. In 1933, her parents went to Holland. Then Anne and her sister lived with their grandmother. Later, after the death of their grandmother, they also went to Holland. She often remembered her grandmother because she loved her a lot. She felt herself lonely because she had no companion with whom she could share her feelings. So she decided to write a diary. She made her first entry in her diary on Saturday, 20th June, 1942. At that time, she was only thirteen years old. In 1946, Anne, her sister Margot and her mother died in concentration camp. Though her life period was very small, yet she was a brilliant girl. She was talkative but even then her teachers liked her.

(iv) Why did Mr. Keesing punish Anne ? What was the punishment and how did Anne finally stop Mr. Keesing from punishing her ? 5
Ans. Mr Keesing was Anne's Mathematics teacher. Anne was a talkative girl. Usually, Mr Keesing had punished Anne for talking in the class. He had given her extra homework as a punishment. One day, Mr Keesing asked her to write an essay on A Chatterbox'. Anne wrote an essay on this topic. But after a few days, she again started to talk in the classroom. Mr Keesing once again gave her an essay. Anne wrote a beautiful poem which was related with a mother duck and a father swan. They had three ducklings. Actually, this poem was a satire on Mr Keesing's behaviour. But instead of becoming angry, he took it in a right sense. He gave permission to talk in the class. Now he didn't give any extra work as a punishment. In fact, he had started to take part in their conversations. Ans. Anne was in the habit of talking in the class. Mr Keesing wanted to punish Anne for her talking. He would give her extra homework. One day, he gave her an essay to write. The topic he gave was : 'Quack, Quack, Quack, said Mistress Chatterbox. Anne wrote the essay in the form of a verse. It told the story of a mother duck and a father swan. They had three ducklings. The father killed the three ducklings because they quacked too much. Clearly, it was a joke on Mr Keesing. But he enjoyed it so much that he allowed Anne to talk in ht's class.

Lesson 5: The Hundred Dresses I by Eleanor Ester

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(i) In what way was Wanda different from the other children ? 2
Ans. Wanda was different from the other children because her name was long and strange. Other children had names easy to say. Secondly, she always wore a faded blue dress. It didn't hang right. She didn't have any friends.

(ii) How is Wanda seen as different by the other girls ? How do they treat her ? 2
Ans. The other girls see Wanda as different because of her origin and dress. She is Polish by origin. Her name is long and strange. She always wears the same faded blue dress. Her feet are usually caked with dry mud. The other girls often make fun of her and mock her.

Answer in about 100 words : 5

(iii) What do you learn about Wanda Petronski from the story "The Hundred Dresses"?
Answer. Wanda Petronski is a little Polish girl. She studies in an American school with other girls. All other girls of her school are American. Wanda lives at Noggins Heights. All the girls tease her for her unusual name. They also tease her for her dress. But Wanda never reacts to them. She remains very calm. She smiles away whatever the girls say to her. She never shows that she feels bad about their teasing her. She is a very sensitive girl. She goes to another town with her family. But she repays in a much better way. She wins the drawing contest. She gives her all drawings of dresses to the girls of her school.

Lesson 6: The Hundred Dresses II

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(i) What excuses does Peggy think up for her behaviour ? Why ? 2
Answer: Peggy is also sad that due to her behaviour Wanda has left the school. But she tries to make excuses for her behaviour. She says that she did not call her a foreigner. She also did not make fun of her name. She only thought that Wanda was dumb and had no sense to know that they were mocking at her.

(ii) How does Maddie feel after listening to the note from Wanda's father ? 2
Answer: Maddie is very upset and sad over the development. She feels greatly hurt. She has a very sick feeling in the bottom of her stomach. She has a feeling to go and tell Wanda that they hadn’t meant to hurt her feeling by making fun of her.

(iii) How does Maddie feel after listening to the note from Wanda's father? 2
Ans. Maddie feels greatly hurt after listening to the note from Wanda's father. She felt very bad. She wanted to tell Wanda that she hadn't meant to hurt her feelings.

Answer in about 100 words : 5

(iv) What did Peggy and Maddie write to Wanda ? What happened on the last day of the school before Christmas?
Ans. Peggy and Maddie wrote a letter to Wanda. They praised her drawings. They wanted to tell Wanda that she had won the drawing contest. Many days passed but there was no reply from Wanda. Now it was the last day of the school before Christmas. Miss Mason, the teacher, got a letter from Wanda. She showed the letter to the class. She read the letter. Wanda wrote that the girls could keep the hundred dresses (paintings). She wanted Peggy to keep the drawing of green dress with red trimmings. She wanted Maddie to keep the drawing of blue dress. Wanda also wished them happy Christmas. Peggy and Maddie were happy to receive the gift from Wanda.

Answer in about 100 words : 5

(v) Give a brief character-sketch of Wanda Petronski. 5

Watch our video on CS of Wanda on YouTube:

Answer: An Immigrant: Wanda is a Polish girl who lives in an ill-equipped Boggins Heights locality where poor people live. The land was muddy there. Her shoes are always mud laden. She studies in a school with American students. They make fun of her as she always wears the same blue faded ill-fitting dress, and her name was weird for them.

Quiet Girl: Wanda is well behaved girl. She rarely says anything. No one ever have heard her laugh out loud. She sometimes makes crooked sort of smile only. She sits in the corner back seat in the class. She is reserved in nature. Even remains calm when they tease her on her unusual name and poverty.

Lonely: Wanda has no friends. Other girls made fun of her because of poverty and strange name. They mock at her. But she repays in much better way. That at last they all regret. She wins drawing contest and makes all of them small. She returns good for evil.

Creative: She can create beautiful dress designs. She is endowed with a rich imagination. She uses her skill in creating hundred brilliant, lavish designs with dazzling colours. She proves herself to be richest and most creative in the class.

Lesson 7: Glimpses of India:
(i) A Baker from Goa by Lucio Rodrigues

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(i) Give a pen – portrait of a baker in a village of Goa. (A Baker from Goa) 5
Ans. A Goan village baker used to sell all kinds of bread loaves. He used to come with loaves for the elders and bread-bangles for the children. He used to come in the morning with a basket of breads loaves on his head, carrying his basket on his head, supporting it with one hand. He made a musical entry on the scene with the jhang-jhang' of his bamboo stick. He used to wear a peculiar dress known as the 'kabai'. It was a single-piece long frock reaching down to the knees. The baker usually collected his bills at the end of the month. Baking was indeed a profitable profession in the old days. The baker always looked happy and prosperous. He had a plump physique

(ii) What was the importance of the baker in the village ? What kind of dress did he wear ? 5
Ans. The baker or the bread-seller wore a special, peculiar dress. It was known as "Kabai. It was a single-piece long frock. It reached down to his knees. During narrator's childhood Bakers wore trousers which were shorter than full length and longer than half pants. Ans. The baker was an important person in the village. Marriage gifts were meaningless without sweet bread. In the same way, a feast lost its charm without bread. Cakes and bolinhas were must for Christmas as well as other festivals. These were made with the help of breads. So the presence of the baker was essential. In the Portuguese days, the bakers wore a peculiar dress known as the kabai. It was a single piece long frock reaching down to the kness. During the author's childhood, the bakers wore a shirt and trousers which were shorter than full length ones and longer than half pants.

Glimpses of India: (ii) Coorg by Lokesh Abrol

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(i) What is the story about the Kodavu people's descent ? (Coorg) 2
Ans. It is believed that the Kodavu people have descended from the Arabs. The Kodavus wear the kuppia which resembles the kuffia worn by the Arabs and the Kurds. Some people believe that they have descended from the Greeks who had stayed back after Alexander's invasion.

(ii) What is the story about the Kodavu people's descent ? 5
Ans. There is a story about the descent of the Kodavu people. They are possibly of Greek or Arabic descent. It is said that a part of Alexander's army moved south along the coast and settled here when their retumn became impractical. Another story is of Arab origin. They wear a long black coat with an embroidered waist-belt called Kuppla. It is similar to Kuffia worn by the Arabs.

(iii) What is Coorg famous for ? Describe briefly what you know about the Coorgi people. 5
Ans. Coorg is the smallest district of Karnataka. It is known as Kodagu also. Coorg lies between the coastal town of Mangalore and Mysore. It is a very beautiful place. The writer says that it must have come from the kingdom of God. Coorg is famous for its coffee plantations, evergreen rainforests and spices. Thirty per cent of its area is covered with the evergreen rainforests. The best season to visit this place is from September to March. The air is full of coffee flavour.

(iv) Write a note on the climate and natural wealth of Coorg. 5
Ans. In the writer's opinion, Coorg is a piece of heaven. The writer calls so because it is a very beautiful place. It lies between Mysore and the coastal town of Mangalore. It is famous for its evergreen rainforests, spices and coffee plantations. The best season to visit Coorg is from September to March. The river Kaveri obtains its water from the hills of Coorg. Here, we find macaques, squirrels, langurs and wild elephants. The visitors enjoy the sports like rafting, rock climbing and mountain biking. The air breathes of invigorating coffee. Coffee estates and bungalows stand tucked under tree canopies in prime corners.

Glimpses of India:
(iii) Tea from Assam by Arup Kumar Dutta

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(i) What is the Indian legend regarding tea ? (Tea from Assam) 2
Ans. According to the Indian legend, an ancient Buddhist ascetic cut off his eyelids. He did so because he felt sleepy during meditations. Ten tea plants grew out of the eyelids. When the leaves of these plants put in hot water and drunk banished sleep.

Lesson 8: Mijbil The Otter by Gavin Maxwell:

Lesson 9: Madam Rides the Bus by Vallikannan

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(i) Why didn't Valli want to go to the stall and have a drink ? What does this tell you about her ? 2
Ans. Valli didn't want to go to stall and have a drink. She had no money for it. The conductor offered to buy one for her, but she refused firmly. It shows that Valli was a wise and self-respecting little girl.

(ii) Why does the conductor call Valli 'madam' ? 2
Ans. The little girl doesn't like to be considered a child. So, the conductor light-heartedly calls her 'madam'.

Answer in about 100 words : 5

(iii) Who was Valli ? What was her overwhelming desire ?
Ans. Valli was an eight-year-old girl She was a curious girl. She wanted to know many things. She did not have playmates of her own age. Her favourite pastime was standing in the front doorway of her Ans house to see what was happening outside The most fascinating thing of all was the bus that passed through the street each hour. The bus travelled between her village and the nearest town. The sight of the bus was a source of unending joy for Valli. It was a great joy for her to watch new sets of passengers every time the bus passed through the street. As she watched the bus day after day, she developed a wish to have a ride on that bus. Her wish became stronger and stronger until it was an overwhelming desire.

(iv) How did Valli plan her visit to the town ? Explain. 5
Ans. Valli carefully listened to the conversations between her neighbours and people who had travelled on the bus or who regularly used it. She asked some casual questions also. She came to know that the town was six miles away from her village. It took forty-five minutes to reach there. The fare was thirty paise for one way. Valli planned her journey to the town and back. It would be her first journey out of her village. She saved every paisa by resisting her desire to buy ice cream, toys, balloons, etc. She had also killed her desire to visit the village fair and have a ride in the merry-go-round. When she had saved sixty paise, she was ready for her first bus journey Then she planned how she would slip out of house. She knew that her mother slept daily after lunch. She decided to use these hours for her journey

Lesson 10: The Sermon at Benares by Betty Renshaw

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(i) Why did the Buddha choose Benares to preach his first sermon ? 2
Ans. Benares is considered to be the most holy place on the banks of the sacred river Ganges. Many people come here to get rid of their sorrows and sufferings and to repent for their sins. As the Buddha wanted to lesson their sorrows and sufferings, he chose Benares to preach his first sermon.

(ii) Who was Gautama Buddha ? Where was he born ? 2
A: Gautama Buddha was born in a royal family. His childhood name was Siddhartha. At the age of 12, he was sent away for schooling in Hindu sacred scriptures and four years later he got married to a princess.

Answer in about 100 words : 5

(iii) Who was Gautama Buddha ? Where was he born? 2
Ans. Gautama Buddha was a prince. His real name was Siddharatha Gautama. He was born in Lumbini.

Answer in about 100 words : 5

(iv) Why did Kisa Gotami go to the Buddha ? What did the Buddha say to her and why ?
A: After the death of her only son, Kisa Gotami was overcome with grief. She carried the dead body of her son in her arms and went from door to door asking for medicine, wonder drug to bring her son back to life, but nobody could provide any medicine. For there is no such medicine available which can bring a dead person back to life. Buddha advised her to bring a handful of mustard seed from a house where no one had died. Buddha wanted to make Kisa Gotami realise the reality of life and death. He made her understand that death is inevitable.

(v) Who was Kisa Gotami? How did Buddha change Kisa Gotami's understanding of life and death?
Ans, Kisa Gotami was a young woman. She had an only son and he died. She took her dead child to all her neighbours to cure him. A man told her to go to the Buddha. He would cure her son. Kisa went to the Buddha. She requested him to cure her son. At this, Buddha advised her to bring a handful of mustard seed from a house where no one had died. Kisa went from house to house But she did not find any house where nobody had ever died. Buddha wanted to make Kisa Gotami realise the reality of life and death. He made her understand that death is inevitable. Buddha told her that the nature of living beings is very clear. Living beings are to die sooner or later.

Lesson 11: The Proposal by Anton Chekhov

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(i) Why does Chubukov call Lomov back home ? Why does Natalya accuse her father ? 2
A: Natalya asks her father to call Lomov at once as she had come to know that Lomov had come to propose her. She accuses Chubukov of driving Lomov out of their home. She was shocked. She wails, changes her stance and asks her father to call Lomov.

(ii) Why does Chubukov call Lomov back home? Why does Natalya accuse her father? 2
Ans. Chubukov says that Lamov came to propose to Natalya. Natalya did not know it. She asks Chubukov to call Lomov back. She accuses her father for Lomov's condition.

(iii) How did Natalya justify that the Oxen Meadows were theirs ? 2
Natalya says that the land belonged to her family for the last three hundred years. Now suddenly Lomov lays his claim to that land. She says that the land is not worth much in terms of money. But as a principle, she won't let Lomov claim it.

(iv) What is the point of dispute between Lomov and Natalya second time ? 2
Ans. Lomov has a pet dog named Guess. Natalya has also a pet dog named Squeezer. Lomov calls his dog a first-rate dog. Natalya says that her Squeezer is far better than Guess. They start finding fault with each other's dog. Thus, they start quarrelling over the dogs.

Answer in about 100 words : 5

(v) Justify, in brief, the title of the play, "The Proposal". (The Proposal)
A: The title of the play ‘The Proposal’ is very appropriate. A young man, Lomov wants to propose Natalya for marriage. He goes to her house for the same. Being confused, he doesn’t propose at once. He beats about the bush. He speaks irrelevantly. As Natalya doesn’t know that he has come to propose her, she thinks that he has come to claim oxen meadows as his own, she starts quarrelling. This results in one after another quarrel. After her father Chubukov reconciles; Natalya comes to know that he has come to propose her. Then at once she forgets the issue of fighting. Then the proposal is made and accepted. Finally, they get engaged. Thus, the title is apt.

(vi) Draw a brief character sketch of Natalya. 5
What do you learn about Natalya after reading the chapter "The Proposal"?
Natalya is one of the main characters of the play The Proposal. She is a grown up girl of 25. She is still unmarried. Nobody has come to propose to her. Therefore, Natalya's father Chubukov is much worried. He calls Natalya a love-sick cat. She wishes that someone should propose to her. Natalya is a good house-keeper. But she is very quarrelsome. She falls out with Lomoy over the ownership of a piece of land. She insists that Meadows are the property of her family She falls out with Lomov again when he is brought back. This time, she quarrels with Lomov over the qualities of their respective dogs. When Lomov faints, Natalya starts wailing. She thinks that he is dead. In brief, Natalya is a farcical character in the play.

(vii) Give a brief character-sketch of Natalya. 5

1. Young Lady: is 25 years old daughter of Chubukov. She is well educated girl. She is love-sick cat as her father talks about her, thirsting for love. She can serve as a good housewife. She is full of diverse personality.\

2. Hypocritical: She is a person who acts in contradiction to her stated feelings about Lomov. Firstly, she greets Lomov with warmth. She allows him to smoke at her home. She even compliments on his appearance. But when talks are on ownership of meadows, she abruptly interrupts and contradicts him, quarrels with Lomov. But when she comes to know that he was here to propose marriage, she is infuriated, blaming her father for causing the neighbour to depart, she immediately softens her stands and asks her father to call back Lomov. Even agrees on meadows to be Lomov’s.

3. Immature Attitude: Only daughter of landowner, she is possessive about her land and was very determined not to part with it. She is short tempered lady who used to quarrel with anyone very often. She always pinpoints the amount of help; she had offered to her neighbours. Though well educated, she did not use her education wisely and thoughtfully.

4. Quarrelsome: is a conservative personality. She has class attitude in her. She proves to be a lady who has kindred obsession of property ownership. She is abusive by nature.

5. Ideal in Lomov’s Eyes: She is excellent house keeper. To him she is good looking, and well educated. Lomov thinks what else he can expect from a girl. She possesses everything. Lomov considers her fit for him.

Poems 3 marks most Important Qs

Poem 1: Dust of Snow by Robert Frost

Video on Explanation:

Answer any two of the following: 3Mx2Q
(i) What is a 'dust of snow' ? What does the poet say has changed his mood ? How has the poet's mood changed ? 3
A: Dust of snow means the particles of snow which are falling from the sky. The poet’s mood was dreary. When a crow shook its body the snow which was on its wings fell down on the poet. It filled poet’s heart with happiness. It changed his mood.

(ii) What is dust of snow? How is the poet's mood changed? 3
Ans. Dust of snow means fine particles of snow. The poet was under a hemlock tree. He was very sad. Snow particles falls on the poet and he feels a change in t mood.

(iii) Where was the crow sitting ? What did it shake down on the poet ? 3
Ans. The crow was sitting on the branch of the hemlock tree. The crow shook its body and the snow which was on its wings fell down on the poet.

(iv) Where was the poet and what happened to him ? 3
A: Poet was standing under a hemlock tree. He was very sad and depressed. A crow, with snow on its wings, was sitting on the same tree. The crow shook its body and snow fell down on the poet. His heart filled with happiness. The crow had saved the rest of his day.

(v) What is the central idea of the poem 'Dust of Snow' ? Discuss. 3
Ans. Robert Frost was a great American poet of nature. In this poem the poet has presented the blessing of nature through the examples of a hemlock tree and a crow. The poet was in a bad mood. He considered that his day was ruined. But the crow shook the tree. The dust of snow fell on him. His mood changed. It signalled something good and joyful. The rest of the day was saved for him. He got busy with his work.

(vi) What is the substance of the poem "Dust of Snow" ? 3
Ans. The poet was standing under a hemlock tree. He was sad. Then he saw a crow on that tree. It shook its body and particles of snow fall on the poet. The poet adopted its activity. He shook his sadness and thing which can filled his heart with happiness. Once again, he was ready for work.

Poem 2: Fire and Ice by Robert Frost

Explanation & Literary Devices:

(i) What are the ideas about how the world will end ? 3
A: Some people say that the world will end in ‘fire’. Some say it will end in ‘ice’.

(ii) What are the symbols of fire and ice in the poem 'Fire and Ice' ? 3
A: ‘Fire’ is symbol of greed, desire, conflict and fury. ‘Ice’ symbolises hatred, coldness, insensitivity, indifference and rigidity. For Frost, 'fire' stands for greed, conflict, avarice, fury, cruelty, intolerance, lust, hatred. 'Ice' stands for insensitivity, coldness, indifference, rigidity.

(iii) What do different people say about the end of the World ? What is the poet's view ? 3
Ans. ‘Fire and Ice’ is a symbolic poem by Robert Frost. The poet wants to aware the humanity that everything will end one day as a result of human misdeeds. The poet says that both fire and ice are destructive. Fire of violent desires will put the world to an end. If the world had to perish twice then it will be perished by the hatred between man and man. Ice has been presented as a symbol of hatred.

Poem 3: A Tiger in the Zoo by Leslie Norris

Explanation & Literary Devices:

(i) What last voice does the tiger hear at night & what does he stare at ? 3
Ans. At night the tiger feels lonely. He hears the sound of the patrolling cars. He looks through the bas at the shining stars. His eyes are also shining.

(ii) How does the tiger terrify the villagers ? 3
A: He stalks around their houses. He frightens the villagers by roaring at the edge of village. He also shows them his white fangs and claws. The tiger roars and shows his white fangs and claws.In this way, he terrifies the villagers.

(iii) Describe the cage where the tiger has been imprisoned. 3
Ans. It is a cage in a zoo. The cage has been built of concrete. It has iron bars. The tiger has been put behind the bars. It is a very small cage. The tiger can hardly move a few steps in it.

(iv) How does the tiger feel in the cage ? How does it walk ? 3
In the cage he is in angry mood. He walks in the cage in a proud manner. He walks quietly. Though he is in anger but he cannot do anything for his freedom.

(v) How does Leslie Morris contrast the tiger in the cage with the tiger in the forest ? 3
Ans. The tiger in the cage moves slowly. He is full of anger but he is not able to express his anger. He is quiet and sad. He ignores the visitors. On the other side, the tiger in the forest is free to walk anywhere. He hides in the long grass and waits for his prey. He frightens the villagers also.

(vi) Summarise the poem 'A Tiger in the Zoo' in your own words. 3
A: The poem begins with a description of a tiger that is very beautiful and is walking in his little cage. He has beautiful stripes on his skin and has velvet like soft paws. But the tiger is not happy and is quite angry about being confined in the cage. The poet says that if the tiger was not confined to the zoo cage, he would have been hiding himself behind the long grass near some water body, in order to catch its prey that is the deer. Also, he would have terrorised the residents of the villages around the forest area. But the reality is totally opposite to this. He was confined in a concrete cage and he was helpless there. He could not show his power to the visitors, therefore, never tried to terrorize them. The tiger is described as being powerless and agonized by the poet. He says that during night also he is alone, hearing the voice of the patrolling vehicles of police and looking at the stars. The cage life has totally changed the tiger’s personality. The poet is trying to say that the animal which is famous for its fearlessness and freedom is confined and sad due to the human beings who want to derive pleasure by looking at him in the cage.

Poem: 4 How to Tell Wild Animals by Carolyn Wells DELETED for 2022 HBSE

Poem 5: The Ball Poem by John Barryman

Explanation & Literary Devices:

(i) What is the effect of the loss of the ball on the boy? 3
Ans The boy is upset and full of grief. He is trembling. He is learning about loss of things in life. He senses his first responsibility.

(ii) What does "in the world of possessions" mean in the poem 'The Ball Poem' ? 3
A: Possessions here means materialistic things; we are possessive about to such an extent that we don’t want to share these with anyone. We are attached with them emotionally. We have a lust to collect materialistic things too much. This world is full of this possessiveness.

(iii) Why does the poet not offer to give money or buy another ball for the boy who has lost his ball? 3
Ans. The poet does not offer money to the boy because he wants that the boy should learn to bear the losses in life.

(iv) What does John Berryman notice at the beginning of "The Ball Poem" ? 3
Ans. The poet, John Berryman, notices a boy play with his ball by the side of the harbour. His ball goes bouncing down the street and falls into the water. The boy is sad. very All his mind is fixed at the place where his ball has gone.

(v) What has the boy lost ? How does the boy react to it ? 3
A: Loss of the ball is giving him lessons of how to take care of belongings. The boy is learning the nature of loss how one feels about after losing his dear things. He is learning how to face loses and how to cope up with. This small incident is imparting training to him which is significant in life. He is learning that without losing heart he should stand up and go ahead in life. Poet John Berryman wants to convey the importance of loss and responsibility in life. We all should learn our responsibility and how to cope up with the loss.

(vi) Write a brief summary of John Berryman's poem 'The Ball Poem' in your own words. 3
A: Loss is a fact of life. Childhood is the time when one should be imparted training on how to bear loss right from the very first time. With the loss of belongings, we learn to live without them gradually. One should not feel sad and gloomy. The poet says that we can buy another by paying money for it. But he does not want to soothe the boy here. He wants that boy must learn the bitter truth of life, harsh reality of life that anyone can suffer loss of things, dear to him. One should not bring life to a halt and continue to achieve more to lose again perhaps.

(vii) What is the theme of the poem "The Ball Poem" ? 3
"John Berryman's "The Bell Poem" tells us about our reactions at some material loss." Discuss.
A: Poet John Berryman wants to convey the importance of loss and responsibility in life. We all should learn our responsibility and how to cope up with the loss. The main idea of this poem is that gains and losses are part and parcel of human life. Therefore, every man should accept them as a common matter and not be unduly worried about them.

Poem 6: Amanda! by Robin Klein

Explanation & Literary Devices:

(i) What could Amanda do if she were a mermaid ? 3
Ans. If Amanda were a mermaid, she could move about in the green sea blissfully.

(ii) How is the sea portrayed in the poem "Amanda" ? 3
Ans. The sea is portrayed as peaceful and beautiful in the poem. If Amanda is a mermaid, she could move about in the green sea blissfully.

(iii) How old do you think Amanda is ? How do you know ? 3
Ans. I think Amanda is a teenager, that is. around 12 or 13. She has acne on her face Usually girls at this age have them on their faces.

(iv) What three things did the speaker ask Amanda to do which she has not done? 3
Ans. The speaker asked Amanda to finish her homework, clean her room and shoes.

(v) What does Amanda say "I am Rapunzel' ? What does she promise not to do ? 3
Ans. Rapunzel is the heroine' of a fairy story. She is a beautiful girl with long hair. She is imprisoned in a tall tower by a witch. In the story a handsome prince comes and is able to climb to the top of the tower to meet her. He calls out to her, "Rapunzel, Rapunzel, let down your long hair." Amanda wants to be Rapunzel because then she will have long hair and her prince charming will come to rescue her from her dull life.

(vi) What is the poem 'Amanda' about ? What are the things Amanda is asked to do & not to do ? 3
Ans. The poem tells us that everyone loves freedom. No one likes any kind of boundation. Even the children don't tolerate any instruction rather it is in their favour. Amanda is asked to sit up straight. She should finish her homework and clean her shoes. She is asked not to bite her nails. She should not hunch her shoulders. She should not eat chocolate.

(vii) Summarise the poem 'Amanda!' in your own words. 3
Ans. This poem depicts the state of mind of a little girl. She is constantly nagged by her parents. She is told not to hunch her shoulders and to sit up straight. She is told to finish her homework, tidy her room and to clean her shoes. She is forbidden from eating chocolates. But all the time, the little girl, Amanda, keeps dreaming of a life of freedom. She dreams of mermaids drifting joyfully in the beautiful sea and of roaming barefoot in the dusty street. She takes no note of what is being said to her. Then she is rebuked for being moody and sulking all the time.

Poem 7: Animals by Walt Whitman

Explanation & Literary Devices:

(i) Why does Walt Whitman want to live with the animals ? 3
Ans. The poet wants to live with animals because he thinks that in nature animals are better than human beings. They lead a life full of peace and contentment. They have no urge to collect wordly things. They are free from any kind of worry.

(ii) To whom does Whitman compare man ? Why ? 3
Ans. Walt Whitman compares man to animals. He does so because man lacks many virtues that animals have.

(iii) What is the difference between animals and humans with regard to their attitude to their condition, sins and God? 3
Ans. Animals and humans have different attitude to their condition, sins and God. Animals never grumble about their condition like men. They do not run after material things. They do not cry/weep for their sins like human beings. They don't discuss their duty to God. They remain calm and contented.

(iv) Mention three things that humans do and animals don't. 3
Ans. The following three things are that which we find in humans but don't find in animals :
(i) Humans feel dissatisfied due to their worldly wishes. But animals don't feel so.
(ii) Humans regret over their sins at night. But the animals sleep peacefully.
(iii) Humans feel worried about their duty towards God. But animals don't bother it.

(v) What is the central idea of the poem "Animals" ? 3
Ans. The poem gives a message that animals do not live happily in the zoo. They miss their freedom. They are happy only in natural habitats. Animals are far better than human beings. They have many virtues which are lacking in men. They never grumble over their condition. They are not mad for material things. They always remain satisfied. They don't commit any sins. So they don't have to weep over them. People talk about their duty to God, but forget about their duty to God's beings. But animals don't worry about their duty to God. Unlike human beings, animals are not at all hypocritical.

(vi) What are the things that humans do but animals don't ? Does it make the poet sick ? 3
Ans. Men remain discontented. They go mad for possessing things. They kneel to other humans. They remain unhappy. But animals do none of these things. Finding men so inferior to animals, the poet feels himself sick.

Poem 8: The Trees by Adrienne Rich DELETED for 2022 HBSE exams
Poem 9: Fog by Carl Sandburg DELETED for 2022 HBSE exams

Poem 10: The Tale of Custard the Dragon by Ogden Nash

Explanation & Literary Devices:

(i) What were the names of Belinda's pets ? 3
A: Belinda has four pets. They are a little black kitten, Ink, a little yellow dog, Mustard, a grey mouse named Blink and a dragon called Custard. Yes, their names reflect their colours and traits. The black kitten Ink is black as ink. Mustard, the dog is yellow like mustard flowers. The cowardly Custard has no strength of character like the dish, custard.

(ii) Why did Custard cry for a nice safe cage ? Why is the dragon called the 'cowardly dragon' ? 3
A: Custard cried for a nice safe cage because he was coward. He was called “cowardly dragon”. All other animals laughed at him for being so. He did not like that. So, he cried for a nice safe cage.

(iii) How does the poet describe the dragon's mouth and nose ? 3
Ans. The dragon had a snorting nose like an engine, He had a big mouth. He gulped the pirate alive. The dragon had big sharp teeth, spikes on top of him and scales underneath. His mouth a fireplace and nose was like a chimney.

(iv) Where did Belinda live and which animals lived with her ? 3
Ans. Belinda lived in a little white house. Some animals also lived with her. They were: a little black kitten, a little grey mouse, a little yellow dog and little pet dragon.

(v) How is 'The Tale of Custard the Dragon' a ballad ? Discuss. 3
A: A ballad is a poem that tells a story. The theme of a ballad is an adventure, bravery, romance, etc. Then it is highly musical due to its rhyme scheme. This poem has these qualities. But it is a parody of a ballad. The poet shows these qualities in a humorous way.

(vi) How is "The Tale of Custard the Dragon" a ballad ? 3
How is "The Tale of Custard the Dragon" a ballad?
Ans. "The Tale of Custard the Dragon" is written by Ogden Nash. This poem is written in the form of a ballad. A ballad is a song or poem that tells a story. It narrates the story of an adventure and bravery. This poem tells the story of a brave dragon. The dragon kills a pirate. The poem is highly musical due to its rhyme scheme. This poem has all the qualities of a ballad. So, it is called a ballad.

(vii) Belinda describes her pet, the dragon as coward? Was he really coward? If not, how does he proves his courage and heroism? 3
Ans. Belinda has four pets- a black kitten, a little grey mouse, a yellow dog and a dragon. Belinda called the dragon coward. But the dragon was not really coward. When a pirate entered Belinda's house. She cried for help. All her pets except the dragon ran away. Only the dragon helped her. The dragon faced the pirate with bravery and killed him. In this way he proved his courage and heroism.

Footprints Without Feet: Important Questions

Lesson 1: A Triumph of surgery by James Harriot


Answer any four of the following questions in about 30-40 words each: 2×4=8

(i) Who was Tricki? How did Mrs. Pumphrey add to its problem? 2
Ans. Tricki was Mrs. Pumphrey's pet dog. She gave Tricki extra food. She did not give him any physical exercise. As a result, Tricki became fat and fell ill.

(ii) Why is the narrator tempted to keep Tricki on as a permanent guest ? 2
A: Getting information that Tricki is out of danger, Mrs. Pumphrey starts sending eggs, wine and brandy for Tricki. Mr. Herriot does not give all this to Tricki. He enjoys all this food with his friends. To continue with all these luxurious rounds, he tempted to keep Tricki as a permanent guest.

(iii) What was Mr. Herriot's strict advice ? Did Mrs. Pumphrey pay heed to his advice ? 2
A: Mr. Herriot’s strict advice was to cut down the sweet things from Tricki’s food. He said that Tricki should be given plenty of exercise. But Mrs. Pumphrey did not heed his advice. She thought Tricki was ill and was suffering from malnutrition. She continued with giving him cakes and chocolates.

(iv) Why was Mr. Herriot shocked at Tricki's appearance ? 2
Ans. Mr. Herriot was shocked at Tricki's appearance because he had become very fat. His eyes were red like blood. He looked like a bloated sausage.

(v) Why did Mrs. Pumphrey make a frantic call to Mr. Herriot? 2
Ans. Tricki stopped eating even his favourite dishes. He had bouts of vomitting. Mrs Pumphrey was much worried to see Tricki's condition. So she made a frantic call to Mr. Herriot.

(vi) What was the problem with Tricki ? How did Mr. Herriot cure it ? 5
Ans. Tricki was seriously ill. He refused food. He had bouts of vomiting. Mrs Pumphrey was very much worried about him. She called Mr Herriot who was a vet. Herriot knew well about Tricki's disease. He told Mrs Pumphrey that the dog must be hospitalized for a fortnight immediately. He carried the dog in his car to his surgery. There he put him in a separate room. He was given no food for two days but plenty of water. After two days the dog felt better. He started enjoying games with other dogs. In this way Herriot cured Trickie of his illness without any medicine or surgery.

(vii) How did Mrs. Pumphrey keep her dog ? How did she add to his problems ? 5
Mrs. Pumphrey has deep love and care for Tricki. Explain. 5
Ans. Mrs Pumphrey was a rich lady. She pampered her dog Tricki. She overfed him. She gave him much nutritious diet. This made him hugely fat. He looked like a bloated sausage. He became dull, flabby, lazy and listless. She thought that he had been suffering from malnutrition. So she gave him malt and cod-liver oil between-meals. She gave him Horlicks at night. In spite of the doctor's advice she gave him cream cakes and chocolate. All these things made his condition worse. He had bouts of vomiting. He kept lying all the time on the carpet. He did not want to go out of the house even for a little time.

Lesson 2: The Thief’s Story by Ruskin Bond


(i) Why did Hari Singh hide his real name ? 2
A: ‘I’ in this story is Hari Singh, the narrator. He was a thief by profession. To rob someone was his profession. He used to change his name every month to keep himself ahead of police and his former employers.

(ii) Why did Hari Singh's heart sink when Anil met him in the morning ? 2
Ans. Next morning, when Hari Singh woke up, Anil had already prepared the tea. He extended his hand to give Hari Singh tea. He had a fifty-rupee note between his fingers. The note was still wet from the last night's rain. Hari Singh's heart sank seeing this. He thought his secret was out now.

(iii) Why was the thief grateful to Anil ? 2
A: Anil was giving him food and accommodation. He was teaching him how to read and write. At first night he came to know that Hari Singh does not know cooking, still Anil does not fire him. All that was enough for Hari Singh to be grateful.

(iv) Love can transform even a thief. How is it true in the case of Hari Singh ? 5
Ans. We can say that Hari Singh is a born thief. He starts stealing from a very young age. He picks his victims very carefully. His sole aim in taking service with Anil is to rob him. And he loses no time when he finds an opportunity to do so. But something arrests his feet when he is about to board the train. He comes back and recalls what Anil has been doing for him. He recalls how much trust Anil had reposed in him. He recalls how lovingly Anil had tried to teach him to read. This is an inward transformation in him which directs his feet back to Anil's place. He places the money from where he had stolen it. Thus we see how love transforms a thief and makes him a good human being.

(v) Give a brief character sketch of the thief in Ruskin Bond's "The Thief's Story". 5
Ans. The thief was a young boy of 15. His name was Hari Singh. He met Anil at a wrestling match. The thief was a clever person. He needed a place to live in. He was a good judge of human nature. He found Anil easy going, simple and kind hearted. He made friendship with Anil. He got food but no pay. But he was cunning. Anil taught him how to read and write. One day, Anil brought a bundle of notes and put them under the mattress. The thief was tempted. He stole the money and decided to catch the Express for Lucknow. But his inner voice rebuked him saying that he should not deceive the man who gave him shelter and food. His soul was awakened. So he went back to Anil's home and put the money under the mattress. He was reformed completely.

(vi) Write a character sketch of the thief boy. 5

Watch Our Video on Character Sketch:

  1. 1. Fraud & Deceitful: He was just 15, thin in looks, a thief with experience and successful hand named Hari Singh, but he was not Hari Singh. He was a fraud who changed his name every new month. He had an appealing but deceitful smile on face to win confidence of his next target cleverly.
  2. 2. Good Judge of Human Nature: He could read faces accurately, knew how a person would react once robbed. He knew how to impress people. He knew that flattery helps in making friends. He knew what will be the reaction of Anil on loss, he will be sad not because of loss of money but loss of trust. Through observation he had mastered the art of human behaviour.
  3. 3. Clever & Cunning: He planned to rob a simple and kind man. He was clever to change his name every month so as to keep himself ahead of police. He made a profit of one rupee out of daily purchases. Clever enough that he did not like friends thinking they were more trouble than help.
  4. 4. Cheater & Liar: From the very beginning he was a liar. Time and again he lied. Firstly, he told his name as Hari Singh who he was not, he was a fake. Secondly, he told Anil that he knew cooking but actually he did not. He made money out of daily purchases, never told to Anil about. He never bought railway ticket. All this proves he was.
  5. 5. Transformed & Awakened: Good is there in every man. So is with Hari Singh. In the end, he was awakened that he had robbed a kind person who was educating him, who gave him food and shelter. He regretted that he was losing chance of getting education. He wanted to be respected in society and this opportunity was going to be missed by him. He decided to go back to Anil. He mended his ways. By the end he was a transformed person. All is well that ends well.

(vii) Why did Hari Singh decide to return the stolen money ? What light does it throw on his character ? 5
Ans. One evening, Anil came home with a small bundle of notes. He put it under the mattress. Hari Singh saw this. He quietly stole the money. But soon he began to repent. His conscience pricked him. He couldn't be ungrateful. He could not rob a person who was so trustful. Therefore, he decided to return the stolen money. This incident throws much light on Hari Singh's character. He is a thief no doubt, but he has a noble heart. Anil's trusting nature transforms him completely. He wants to learn to read and write. He wants to win respect. He wants to lead an honest life. Thus we can say Hari Singh is not really bad at heart. He is a noble-hearted boy. At the end of the story, he wins our sympathy.

(viii) "The Thief's Story" is indepth study of human mind. Discuss. 5
Ans. The human mind is a very complex thing. Sometimes, we fail to understand even our own mind or activities. It happens in the case of the thief. He works for Anil. But his real purpose is to rob him. One day he finds an opportunity to steal money. He steals six hundred rupees. He runs away. He reaches at the station. But somehow, he misses the train. Then he comes out of the station. He realises how he has robbed a person like Anil who helps him in need. He listens to his conscience. He comes back to Anil and puts his money back. In this way, we find that this story is an indepth study of human mind.

(ix) How did Hari Singh rob Anil of his six hundred rupees? What stopped him to run away? 5
Ans. Hari Singh was a thief. He met Anil. Anil was an easy going person. Anil took Hari Singh with him and gave him work. Anil asked Hari Singh to cook food. But Hari Singh did not know how to cook food. Anil taught him to read and write. In this way Anil gave Hari Singh food and shelter. Anil had no regular income. One day Anil came home with Six hundred rupees. He put them under his mattress. Hari Singh stole that money and ran away to railway station. Suddenly he changed his mind. He thought about Anil's goodness. He decided not to break Anil's faith. So he came back.

Lesson 3: The Midnight Visitor by Robert Arthur DELETED this year
Lesson 4: A Question of Trust by Victor Caning DELETED this year

Lesson 5: Footprints Without Feet by H. G. Wells


(i) Why was Griffin wandering the streets ? 2
Ans. Griffin was wondering in the streets because he was without clothes. After setting fire to his landlord’s house, he was now a homeless wanderer. It was very cold outside. Moreover, he had no money to buy food and clothes.F

(ii) Why was Griffin wandering in the streets ? 2
Ans. Griffin was a lawless person. He set fire on his landlord's house. To avoid being seen, he removed his clothes and became invisible. He was now without clothes and shelter. So he was wandering in streets.

(iii) How did the invisible man become visible ? 2
Ans. The invisible man wore warm clothes, shoes, over coat, bandages, false nose, dark glasses and a hat. After wearing all these items the invisible man became visible.

(iv) How did Griffin become invisible ? 2
A: Griffin was a brilliant scientist. He invented a formula by which human body could be made transparent. He discovered a rare drug. He took this drug and his body became as transparent as a sheet of glass.

(v) What did Griffin do in the house of the clergyman? 2
Ans. Griffin entered the house of the clergyman and stole the money from the clergyman's desk. The clergy and his wife heard noise in their room. They searched the room but found no one in the room.

(vi) Why does Mrs. Hall find the scientist eccentric ? 2

A: To avoid crowd of London, Griffin comes to Iping in winter. His timing of visiting Iping was strange itself. Mrs Hall tried to be friendly but he showed no desire to talk by saying he was there to live in solitude. And that he did not want to be disturbed by anyone. Thus, she finds him unusual.

(vii) What curious episode occurs in the study ? Discuss. 2
A: A curious episode occurred early in the morning. The clergyman and his wife heard noises downstairs in study. They heard the chink of money being taken from the desk. Clergyman having a stick in his hand asks to surrender but he finds the room empty. Though they searched but no sign of anybody was there. Yet the desk was opened and money was missing.

(viii) Griffin was a brilliant scientist but not a good human being. Explain. 5
A: Scientific discoveries are expected to benefit mankind and scientists are supposed to work for the betterment of society. However, scientist like Griffin, show little regard for society and use their discoveries to gain their own ends. Such scientists are not true and genuine in any way. As a true scientist does not misuse his knowledge. Here he misused his knowledge 5 times in the story. He discovered a rare drug. But he misused that drug. He became invisible. He stole clothes and money. He hit the shopkeeper and robbed him. He stole clergyman’s money also. Thus, in place of using the power of invisibility to help the needy or to check crime, Griffin indulged in breaking the law. Although intelligent, Griffin’s potential as a scientist was certainly harmful.

(ix) Describe the policeman's fight with the invisible man. 2
A: One day, Griffin stole money from the clergyman’s house. The people of the village suspected Griffin. They thought that he had stolen the money. Mrs. Hall called a policeman. When the policeman reached there, he was surprised. Griffin had removed his spectacles, false nose and side whiskers. Now he looked headless. The policeman was surprised as he had to arrest a headless man. He tried to catch Griffin. But Griffin started taking off his clothes one by one. He was becoming more and more invisible. In the end, he became totally invisible. The constable tried to fight with him. Some villagers also tried to help the policeman. But they received blows from nowhere. Then Griffin hit the policeman. He fell unconscious. Then Griffin became free and walked out.

Lesson 6: The Making of A Scientist by Robert W. Peterson


(i) To which field of science did Richard H. Ebright contribute ? 2
Ans. Ebright got the idea for his new theory about cell life. It came while he was looking at an X-ray photo of the chemical structure of a hormone. Ebright gave the theory on how cells work.

(ii) Why did viceroy butterflies copy monarchs ? What was the similarity between them ? 5
A: Monarch would do so to escape from being eaten by birds because monarchs do not tase good to eat. So in order to save themselves from birds, the viceroys copy the monarchs. The more they look like monarchs, less likely they are to become a bird’s dinner. Both are shockingly similar with their orange and black wing coloration. They have similar color pattern.

(iii) How did Richard Ebright's mother help him ? 2
A: His mother noticed his curiosity about things around him. She encouraged him by providing him telescopes, microscopes and cameras. She took him on trips. She was her real companion. She was a source of inspiration for him.

(iv) What were the hobbies of Ebright in his childhood? 5
A: Ebright’s hobby was collecting things. He was fascinated by butterflies. He also collected rocks, fossils, and coins. He also became a star gazer and an eager astronomer. Ebright was not only a science researcher but also a keen and brilliant student. At high school, he was a straight-A student, a champion debater and an orator. He was also an avid reader of books. He took keen interest in public-speaking, was a canoeist par excellence and also an expert photographer of nature.

(v) How did Ebright's mother help him in becoming a scientist ? Explain.
How did Ebright's mother encourage him to become a scientist ? 5
Ans. From his very childhood, Ebright was inerested in collecting things. He used to collect butterflies, rocks, fossils and coins. He had a bright mind, and had the curiosity of a scientist. His mother discovered these qualities in him and gave all help to develop them. She encouraged his interest in learning. she bought him a book titled Travels of Monarch X. This book proved to be a turning point in the life of this future scientist. He developed a keen interest in insect life after reading this book.
She would take him on trips. She bought him telescope, microscopes, cameras and other equipments. When Richard didn't have anything to do, she would find work for him not physical work, but that of learning things. Thus, the mother helped Richard a lot in becoming an intelligent scientist. Without her, Ebright could never have become such a great scientist. In sum, Ebright's mother did everything possible to nourish and groom her son's scientific temperament.

Lesson 7: The Necklace by Guy De Maupassant


(i) What was the cause of Mrs Loisel's suffering? 2
Ans. Matilda borrowed a neckless from her friend and lost it somewhere. She had to replace the necklace. That was the cause of her suffering.

(ii) What kind of a person is Mme Loisel ? Why is she always unhappy ? 2
Ans. Mme Loisel is a pretty lady. She thinks that she is born for a luxurious life. But she is married with a poor clerk. That's why, she is always unhappy.

(iii) Why was Matilda Loisel always unhappy ? 2
Ans. Matilda was a pretty girl. She was born in a poor family. Her husband was a small clerk. But Matilda thought she was born to enjoy all the luxuries of life. The her house and clothes always troubled her. So she was unhappy. poverty of her house and clothes always troubled her. So she was unhappy

(iv) How did Matilda come to know the real cost of the necklace ? 5
Ans. After a period of about ten years one evening Matilda came face to face with Mme. Forestier. Matilda recognised her and greeted her but Mme. Forestier did not recognise her. When Matilda told her about herself Mme. Forestier was stunned how she changed so much. At this Matilda told her whole tragedy. Then Mme forestier told her that her necklace was of false diamonds and its cost was just five hundred francs.

(v) How did the Loisel react when they realized that the necklace had been lost ? 2
Ans. When the Loisels realized that the necklace had been lost, it was a big blow for them. They made a big search for the necklace. They looked into the folds of Matilda's dress. The husband searched the whole route by which they had come home.

(vi) What did Loisel do to replace the necklace ? 2
They pay thirty-six thousand francs for exactly the same necklace. Loisel had eighteen thousand francs. He borrows the remaining money on the high rates of interest. Then they replace the necklace.

(vii) How did Matilda get the jewels to wear at the ball ? 2
Ans. Mme Loisel has a friend Mme Forestier. She is very rich. Mme Loisel's husband suggests her to borrow some jewellery from her. Then she borrows a necklace from her. By this way, the problem is solved.

(viii) What kind of a person is Loisel's husband ? 2
Ans. Her husband sa poor clerk. But he loves her wife a lot. He wants to see her wife always happy. He suffers a lot in his life due to his wife. But he never complains to her. This shows that he is a loving husband.

(ix) What fresh problem now disturbs Mme. Loisel after receiving the invite ? 2
Ans. Now Mme Loisel had a new dress. But she had no jewel to wear with this dress. So she is disturb.

(x) What was the cause of Mrs. Loisel's ceaseless suffering ? 2
Ans. Mrs Loisel was very beautiful. She wanted to lead a life of comfort and luxury. She wanted to enjoy life. But she was married to a clerk. She lived in a simple house and led an ordinary life. This was the cause of her ceaseless suffering.

Answer in about 100 words:

(xi) What did Loisel bring home one evening ? How did Matilda react to it ? 5
Ans. Loisel worked as a clerk in the Ministry of Public Instruction. The Minister was going to hold a party. Not many invitations were given to clerks. But Loisel was able to get one with great difficulty. He was certain that his wife would be pleased to have it. But Matilda showed no happiness at all. She threw the invitation on the table. She said she had no suitable dress for the occasion. Loisel asked her how much a suitable dress would cost. She thought for some time. Then she said that it could cost around 400 francs. Loisel had saved this much money to buy a hunting gun for himself. He agreed to give it to Matilda for her new dress.

(xii) Describe the kind of life that Mrs. Loisel dreamed of ? 5
Ans. Mrs Loisel was pretty and charming. She was married to a clerk. She led an ordinary existence. But she was not happy with her life. She felt that she should have been born in a rich family. She wanted to lead a life of luxury and comfort. She wanted to enjoy life. She dreamed of a big house in which there was very good furniture. She dreamed of beautiful and costly curtains.
Mrs Loisel dreamed of her private room which was filled with very good perfume. She wanted to enjoy the company of rich and famous guests. When she sat down to dinner, she disliked her cheap and ordinary dining table. She disliked her simple meals. She dreamed of delicious dinners served in shining silver wares. She dreamed of having a number of attractive dresses and costly ornaments. In short, Mrs Loisel dreamed of a rich and luxurious life.

(xiii) Necklace played an important role in the life of the Loisels. Comment. 5
Ans. Matilda was born in a poor family. But she lived in a world of her dreams. She was married to a petty clerk. She wanted to lead a life of comforts and luxuries. But she suffered from the poverty of her house. It is true that the Necklace played an important role in the life of Loisels She received an invitation to ball party. She spent 400 francs on her dress and borrowed a necklace from her friend. Unfortunately, she lost the necklace, Loisels bought a new necklace for 36000 francs to replace the lost one. They borrowed half of the money on high interest-rates. They were under debt. This changed their lives forever. They changed their lodgings and sent away the maids. Mr. Lotsel worked till late nights. Their struggle went on for ten years. Thus, we can say that the Necklace changed the life of Loisels.

Lesson 8: The Hack Driver by Sinclair Lewis


(i) How did Lutkins' mother treat the lawyer ? 2
Ans. The hack driver told her that the narrator had the legal right to search all properties of Lutkins. At this, the woman rushed at them with an iron rod in her hand. The narrator stepped back in fear.

(ii) What does Bill tell the lawyer about Lutkins & his family ? 2
Ans. Bill tells the lawyer that Lutkins has a mother. They have a farm house, three miles north. He says that his mother is a real terror. She is about nine feet tall and four feet thick. But she is as quick as a cat.

iii) Who was Lutkins? 2
Ans. Lutkins was a hack driver. He lived at New-Mullion. He was needed as a witness in a law case.

(iv) Why did the narrator not like his job ? 2
Ans. It was the job of a clerk in a law firm. He had to serve court summons on the people. Sometimes, he had to go to dirty parts of the city. He hated the kind of life he saw there. He didn't like this work. He wanted to go back to his hometown.

(v) Who behaved friendly with the lawyer and where did he take him and why ? 2
Who befriends the lawyer ? Where does he take him ?
Ans. The lawyer goes to New Mullion. There a hack driver befriends him. He offers the lawyer in searching for Oliver Lutkins. He takes him to a number of places, in fact, the hack driver is Oliver Lutkins himself.

(vi) Why is the lawyer sent to New Mullion ? What does he first think about the place ? 2
Ans. The narrator is a lawyer. He is sent to New Mullion to serve summons on a person named Oliver Lutkins. He first thinks about the place to be a sweet and simple village. But he is shocked when he finds it dirty and unromantic.

(vii) Write a character sketch of the hack driver. 5


Ans. Lutkins is a hack driver in New Mullion. He is a cheater. He is 40. He is sharp and good judge of others. He shows his smartness when he comes to know about lawyer’s reason of visiting new Mullion. He is master trickster. He borrows money from different persons. But he never pays them back. He is able to cheat the narrator also. But he is a cheerful and friendly person. The lawyer reached New Mullion. There he came across Lutkins. But the lawyer did not recognise him. The lawyer told him that he had come to meet Lutkins. At this Lutkins made a plan to be fool him. He told him that his name was Bill and he would help him in finding out Lutkins. He outsmarts educated one from city.

(viii) Write a character sketch of the lawyer. 5
Ans. The lawyer was a fresh graduate from a university. He got a job as a junior assistant clerk in a law firm. His duty was to serve the summons. He did not like his job. He liked simple, honest and friendly people. He got very happy when he was asked to go to New Mullion. He loved natural beauty. He liked New Mullion and its people very much. He considered starting his law practice at New Mullion. He was simple hearted man. He was easily taken for a ride by the hack driver. He could not see the trick of the hack man behind his friendly behaviour. But he was a man of self-respect. His feelings were hurt when Lutkins and his mother laughed at him as he was a bright boy of seven years.

Lesson 9: Bholi by K. A. Abbas


(i) Why is Bholi's father worried about her ? 2
A: Bholi was not like other children. She fell off a cot on her head when she was ten months, due to which her brain was slightly damaged. She learnt to speak very late and used to stammer. Her face and whole body were covered with pockmarks. Thus, her father was worried about her marriage prospects

(ii) Why does the marriage not take place ? 2
Why did Bholi's marriage with Bishamber not take place ?
A: At the time of marriage, Bishamber asked for a dowry of five thousand rupees because he saw Bholi’s pock-marked face. Ramlal had no choice but to pay. But, Bholi refused to marry the greedy man. She asserted her rights and dignity. Thus, the marriage party was turned away.

(iii) Why do Bholi's parents accept Bishamber's marriage proposal ? 2
A: Bholi’s parents accepted Bishamber’s marriage proposal as he was a well-to-do grocer and had not asked for any dowry.

(iv) What reason Bholi gives to deny to marry Bishamber? 2
Ans. Bishamber demanded a dowry of five thousand and was adament. Suddenly Bholi refused to marry him. She said that she would not marry him as he was a mean and greedy man.

(v) Why was Sulekha nicknamed Bholi ? 5
A: The word Bholi means a simpleton. Throughout the story she had been a simpleton who hardly expressed her opinion on any matter. The word Sulekha means ‘a person with a beautiful sense of letters.’ In this story this word has a larger meaning of being a literate, intelligent and mature individual. After her education, Bholi has really changed to Sulekha and her assertion at the time of her marriage is her announcement to the world that she is no more a Bholi, but is a Sulekha.

(vi) For what unusual reason is Bholi sent to school ? 5
A: As Ramlal was a government official and the Tehsildar Sahib had asked Ramlal to send his daughters to the new school in his village, Bholi was sent to school just to satisfy the Tehsildar. As Ramlal’s wife felt that sending girls to school affected their marriage prospects adversely, she did not want to send any of her daughters to school. However, Bholi, with her pock-marked face and dull brain would not be possible to get married anyway, so Bholi’s parents decided to send her to school to satisfy the Tehsildar.

(vii) What changes do we find in the behaviour of Bholi in the end of the story ? Explain. 2
A: Bholi stammered and was just a bundle of nerves when she attended school in the beginning. Her teacher treated her kindly and encouraged her to have confidence and be bold. She taught her to read and write and made her an independent girl who was aware of her rights. Thus, she changed her life.

(viii) Describe Bholi's experiences on her first day at school. 5
A: Bholi was afraid at first. She even wept when the teacher asked her name. She just sat in a corner. But, the beautiful pictures on the classroom wall attracted her. The gentle, kind and loving manner of her teacher made her comfortable. She was looking forward to her new life by the time the first day ended. Thus, although initially she did not enjoy it, but by the time she went home she had liked school.

(ix) What do you know about Bholi and describe the role of the teacher in her life? 5
Ans. Bholis' real name was Sulekha. But people called her Bholi because she was mentally retarded. She stammered while speaking, She could not speak out even her name properly. She was shy and timid. Even her parents neglected her. They considered her a dumb cow. She was sent to school because of the Tehsildar's suggestion. Her teacher was very kind and sympathetic to her. She assured her that she would be able to speak properly without stammering. One day she would be the most learned person of the village. The teacher's words gave Bholi a new hope and life. Slowly the shy girl gained confidence. At last, she grew into a bold, confident, self-reliant girl. That was why she refused to marry Bishamber because he was a greedy person She became an asset to her parents.

(x) Why did Bholi at first agree to marry Bishamber? What light it throws on her character? Why did she later reject the marriage? 5
Ans. Bholi's real name was Sulekha. But people called her Bholi because she was mentally retarded. She stammered while speaking. She could not speak out even her name properly. She was shy and timid. Even her parents neglected her. They considered her a dumb cow. She was sent to school because of the Tehsildar's suggestion, Her teacher was very kind and sympathetic to her. She assured her that she would be able to speak properly without stammering. One day she would be the most learned person of the village. The teacher's words gave Bholi a new hope and life. Slowly the shy girl gained confidence. At last, she grew into a bold, confident, self-reliant girl. That was why she refused to marry Bishamber because he was a greedy person. She became an asset to her parents.

Character Sketch of Bholi:

Lesson 10: The Book That Saved the Earth by Claire Boiko DELETED this year 2022

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