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The Proposal

by Anton Chekov



"The Proposal" written by Anton Chekov, a famous Russian playwright, is a highly humorous play which satirises marriages of convenience that are solemnized without any feeling of love or affection between the partners. The play, with three quarrelsome characters, is replete with comic situations that generate a lot of humour.

"The Proposal" is a play in which Lomov, a thirty-five-year-old bachelor, apprehensive of never getting a bride of his choice, comes to propose to Natalya - his next-door neighbour. Natalya too, at the age of twenty-five, is more than eager to be proposed to by someone. However, the first attempt to make a formal proposal fails miserably and so is the fate of the second attempt. Despite these failures, the proposal is forcibly turned into a marriage by the intervention of the girl's father Chubukov. The title "The Proposal" therefore clearly lays out the content of the play-the proposal by Lomov to Natalya. The theme of the farcical play "The Proposal" is the fate of marriages that are solemnised with a deceitful intent on the part of both partners. In such marriages of convenience, love always takes a backseat. An ideal marriage is a union of two hearts as well as families; but in "The Proposal" it is neither the union of two loving hearts, nor the union of two families. At the thematic level, the author aims at condemning such marriages and artistically hints at his own concept of an ideal marriage that is the result of true and selfless love.

This play is a farce (a play based on ridiculous and unlikely situations) and it may be defined as a funny play for the theatre, based on ridiculous situations and events. Obviously, such a play is not supposed to be giving any message as such. However, a masterly playwright like Chekhov, will not write anything just for the sake of it, even if it happens to be a farce. Thus, "The Proposal" indirectly presents the author's reflection on how not to commence one's married life. Marriage is a solemn bond between two persons which must be based on mutual respect and love. Thus, we should not spoil the sacred relationship of marriage by quarrelling and by being mean and selfish. Marriage is pious and there must be a perfect accord between the partners who should be free from all prejudice and selfishness. Short temper, rage, intolerance, vain pride and unnecessary arguments ruin relationships So, these should be controlled and kept under check.

The one act play, "The Proposal" is a farce. The basic qualities of a farce are the ridiculous and unlikely situations and absurdity. One finds them in abundance in this play. As Lomov enters Chubukov's drawing room, the latter's suspicions about his visit make a comical reading. The pretence of love and affection on the part of Chubukov is also amusing. Initially both Lomov and Chubukov flatter each other by singing praises about each other's family, but later on accuse not only each other, but also their ancestors. Again, the reasons put forward by Lomov to himself, for proposing to Natalya really make a funny reading. The assertions of Lomov and Natalya regarding the ownership of Oxen Meadows' and the quarrel that ensues makes the situation ridiculous. A variety of ailments that Lomov is afflicted with and his nervousness make him a very comical character.

Chubukov and Lomov are neighbours. They are both landowners. Chubukov has a young daughter named Natalya. She is about rwenty-five years old. Lomov is a young man of thirty-five. He comes to Chubukov's house in order to propose to his daughter. But all three are quarrelsome by nature. First, they enter into an argument over the ownership of a piece of land. Lomov forgets all about the proposal he has come to make. He says that he has papers to prove his ownership of the land. They shout and call each other names. Even before this quarrel is settled, they have another quarrel. This time, it is about the breed of their dogs. Each claims his dog to be of a superior breed. Lomov is a nervous type of person. While quarrelling with Natalya and her father, he faints. Natalya begins to cry that now there was nobody to propose to her. As soon as Lomov comes to himself, Chubukov puts his daughter's hand into Lomov's hand.


Thus, the proposal is accepted without being made.

चुबुकोव और लोमोव दो पड़ोसी हैं। वे दोनों ही जमींदार किसान हैं। चुबुकोव की एक जवान लड़की है जिसका नाम नतल्या है। वह लगभग पच्चीस वर्ष आयु की है। लोमोव पैंतीस वर्ष का एक युवक है। वह चुबुकोव के घर पर उसकी बेटी के लिए विवाह का प्रस्ताव ले कर आता है, किन्तु वे तीनों स्वभाव से बहुत झगड़ालू हैं। पहले वे जमीन के एक टुकड़े की मालिकी के बारे में झगड़ा करने लगते हैं। लोमोव उस विवाह प्रस्ताव के बारे में सब भूल जाता है, जिसके लिए वह आया है। वह कहता है कि उसके पास कागज हैं जिनसे वह जमीन पर अपनी मालिकी साबित कर सकता है। वे तीनों चिल्लाने और एक-दूसरे को बुरा-भला कहने लगते हैं। अभी इस झगड़े का निबटारा भी नहीं हुआ होता है कि वहां एक दूसरा झगड़ा शुरू हो जाता है। इस बार यह उनके कुत्तों की नस्ल के बारे में होता है। वे अपने-अपने कुत्ते की नस्ल बढ़िया होने का दावा करते हैं। लोमोव बहुत जल्दी घबरा जाने वाली किस्म का आदमी है। नतल्या और उसके पिता के साथ झगड़ते हुए वह बेहोश हो जाता है। नतल्या रोने लगती है कि अब उससे विवाह का प्रस्ताव करने वाला कोई नहीं रहा था। ज्योंही लोमोव अपने होश में आता है, चुबुकोव अपनी बेटी का हाथ लोमोव के हाथ में रख देता है। इस प्रकार विवाह का प्रस्ताव प्रस्तुत किए बिना ही स्वीकार कर लिया जाता है।

Summary In English

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When the play begins, we see that Lomov comes to meet Chubukov at his house. Chubukov who is a farmer, welcomes Lomov. He asks him why he is wearing formal clothes and whether he is going to attend a function. Lomov replies that he is not going anywhere; he has come only to meet him. Lomov appears excited and perturbed. He calms himself down and begins to tell him the purpose of his visit. He tells him that he came to him many times in the past also for his help but he did not help him. Before telling the purpose of his visit, Lomov is excited once again. Chubukov thinks that perhaps he has come to ask for a loan. He makes up his mind not to help him in any way.

Lomov once again begins to tell Chubukov about the purpose of his visit. But he once again becomes excited. He talks about himself in exaggerated terms. Chubukov asks him not to beat about the hush and to talk about his purpose of coming. Lomov gathers courage and tells him that he has come to ask for his daughter Natalya's hand in marriage. On hearing this Chubukov becomes very happy, he goes in to call Natalya. But before this Lomov asks him whether Natalya would give her permission for this. Chubukov replies that she will readily accept a match like him.


Lomov is left alone in the room. His body is trembling with excitement. He thinks about his present life. He wants to settle the Question of his marriage at once. He thinks that now he should not delay. He thinks about Natalya. She is a skilled house-keeper. She is educated and is not bad to look at. At this age he should not expect a better girl than her. Now he is thirty-five years old. Now he should lead a regulated life. He is suffering from serious diseases like palpitation, excitement and insomnia. Because of these reasons, he should marry.

Just then Natalya comes in. Her father has not told her that Lomov has come to meet her. He only told her that a customer had come. Even then she welcomes Lomov. Before Lomov can speak, she starts speaking. When she mentions his beautiful dress, he is again excited. Before he can talk about his marriage to her, he starts trembling. Natalya encourages him and he recovers. He says that he will tell her everything in brief. Even then he cannot talk in a straight-forward manner. He beats about the bush. He tells her that for the last many decades their families have had good relations. Their estates are also adjoining.


His Oxen Meadows touch their birchwoods. Natalya protests against this. She says that the Oxen Meadows belong to her. Both of them lay their claims to it. They start quarrelling about the ownership of the Oxen Meadows. They shout loudly at each other. They do not calm down in any way.


Chubukov comes in and finds them both quarrelling. He is greatly surprised. But when he finds that they are quarrelling about the ownership of the Oxen Meadows, he also becomes angry. Instead of calming them down, he also starts quarrelling. He claims to be the owner of the Meadows. He insults not only Lomov but also his family members. Lomov becomes more excit uses insulting words for Chubukov, Natal and their family members. Lomov's palpitation increases and he becomes very perturbed. He goes out of the room. Chubukov says how the foolish Lomov dared to bring a proposal for Natalya's marriage. When Natalya hears this, she is deeply shocked. She is almost unconscious. She starts weeping and asks her father to bring Lomov back. Chubukov feels sad. He says that it is the biggest misfortune to be the father of a girl. He goes out to call Lomov.

Lomov again enters the room. Natalya thinks that she will not annoy him this time. She tries to please him. She says that the Meadows belong to him. She tries to change the topic so that he could propose to her. But he is still not all right. He is feeling disturbed. He does not come to the point. Lomov starts praising the qualities of his dog Guess, which he has purchased for 125 roubles.


But Natalya says that her dog Squeezer which she purchased for 85 roubles is much better than Lomov's dog Guess. Both of them praise the qualities of their dogs. Now they start quarrelling on this topic. They again start shouting at each other. In the meantime, Chubukov comes. Instead of putting an end to their quarrel, he also starts quarrelling. In this dispute, Lomov's condition deteriorates and he falls on the chair, unconscious. Both the father and the daughter think that he has died. Natalya starts lamenting that her chance of getting married has gone.

After sometime, Lomov comes to his senses. Chubukov tells Lomov that Natalya is willing for marriage, so he should marry her. Natalya expresses her willingness. Chubukov does not want to lose even a moment and joins their hands. He asks them to kiss each other. But soon, they start quarrelling again. They start debating the qualities of their respective dogs. Chubukov tries to calm them down. With this the play comes to an end.

Summary In Hindi

जब नाटक शुरू होता है तो हम देखते हैं कि लोमोव चुबुकोव के घर उससे मिलने के लिए आता है। चुबुकोव, जोकि एक किसान है, लोमोव का स्वागत करता है। वह उससे पूछता है कि वह औपचारिक पोशाक क्यों पहने हुए है, और क्या वह किसी विशेष कार्य के लिए जा रहा है। लोमोव उत्तर देता है कि वह कहीं और नहीं जा रहा है, वह तो उससे ही मिलने आया है। लोमोव उत्तेजित और व्याकुल नज़र आता है। वह अपने-आपको शांत करता है और अपने आने का उद्देश्य बताना आरंभ करता है। वह उसे बताता है कि यह पहले भी कई बार सहायता के लिए उसके पास आया है और उसने उसकी सहायता नहीं की है। अपना उद्देश्य बताने से पहले ही लोमोव फिर से उत्तेजित हो जाता है। चुबुकोव मन में सोचता है कि शायद वह कर्ज लेने आया है। वह निश्चय कर लेता है कि वह उसे किसी प्रकार की सहायता नहीं देगा।

लोमोव एक बार फिर चुबुकोव को अपने आने के उद्देश्य के बारे में बताना चाहता है। लेकिन वह दोबारा उत्तेजित हो जाता है। वह सहायता के बारे में बोलने की अपेक्षा अपने बारे में कुछ बढ़-चढ़कर बात करता है। चुबुकोव उसे इधर-उधर की बात न करके उसके आने के उद्देश्य की बात करने के लिए कहता है। लोमोव शक्ति बटोर लेता है और उसे बताता है कि वह उसकी बेटी नाताल्या का हाथ विवाह के लिए माँगने आया है। यह सुनकर चुबुकोव बहुत प्रसन्न होता है। वह नाताल्या को बुलाने के लिए अंदर जाने लगता है। परंतु उससे पहले ही लोमोव उससे पूछता है कि क्या नाताल्या इसकी स्वीकृति देगी। चुबुकोव उसे उत्तर देता है कि वह उस जैसे अच्छे लड़के को तुरंत स्वीकार कर लेगी।

लोमोव कमरे में अकेला रह जाता है। उसका शरीर उत्तेजना से काँप रहा है। वह अपने वर्तमान जीवन के बारे में सोचना शुरू कर देता है। वह अपनी शादी का मामला तुरंत तय कर देना चाहता है। वह सोचता है कि उसे अब ज्यादा देर नहीं करनी चाहिए। वह नाताल्या के बारे में सोचता है। वह एक कुशल गृहिणी है। वह पढ़ी-लिखी है और देखने में भी बुरी नहीं है। इस आयु में उसे इससे अच्छी लड़की की आशा भी नहीं करनी चाहिए। वह पैंतीस वर्ष का हो चुका है। उसे अब एक नियमित जीवन बिताना चाहिए। वह दिल की धड़कन, बौखलाहट और अनिद्रा जैसी भयंकर बीमारियों से भी पीड़ित है। इन कारणों से उसे अब विवाह कर लेना चाहिए।

इतने में नाताल्या अंदर आती है। उसके पिता ने उसे नहीं बताया कि लोमोव उससे मिलने आया है। उसने तो उसे यही बताया था कि कोई ग्राहक आया है। फिर भी वह लोमोय का स्वागत करती है। इससे पहले कि लोमोव कुछ बात करे, यह बात करना आरंभ कर देती है। जब वह उसकी सुंदर पोशाक की ओर संकेत करती है, वह फिर उत्तेजित हो उठता है। इससे पहले कि वह उससे शादी के बारे में पूछे वह कापने लगता है। नाताल्या उसे प्रोत्साहित करती है और यह ठीक हो जाता है। यह कहता है कि वह उसे संक्षेप में सब कुछ बता देगा। फिर भी स्पष्ट रूप से बात नहीं कर पाता। यह इधर-उधर की बातें करने लगता है। वह उसे करता है कि पिछले कई दशकों से उनके परिवारों के संबंध बहुत अच्छे हैं। उनकी संपत्तियाँ भी साथ-साथ हैं। उनकी चाहें उनके भोज-पत्र के बनों को छूती है नाता इस बात का विरोध करती है। वह कहती है कि चरागाहें उनकी है। दोनों ही उन पर अपना-अपना अधिकार जमाते हैं। इन चरागाहों की मलकियत के प्रश्न पर दोनों में झगड़ा आरंभ हो जाता है। दोनों बहुत जोर से एक-दूसरे पर चिल्लाते हैं वे किसी भी प्रकार से शांत नहीं होते।

चुबुकोव अन्दर आता है और उन्हें झगड़ते हुए देखता है। वह बड़ा हैरान होता है। परंतु जब उसे पता चलता है कि ये दोनों चरागाहों के स्वामित्व पर झगड़ रहे हैं तो यह भी क्रोधित हो उठता है। उन्हें शांत करने की अपेक्षा वह भी लड़ने लग जाता है। यह चरागाहों के स्वामित्व का दावा करता है। वह न केवल लोगो बल्कि उसके परिवार के सदस्यों का भी अपमान करता है। लोमो और अधिक उत्तेजित हो उठता है। वह सुबुकोव, नातात्या और उनके परिवार के सदस्यों के लिए अपमानजनक शब्दों का प्रयोग करता है। लोमोव के दिल की धड़कन बढ़ जाती है और यह अत्यधिक अशांत हो उठता है। यह कमरे से बाहर चला जाता है। शुकोव करता है कि इस मूर्ख लोमोव को उसकी बेटी के सामने शादी का प्रस्ताव रखने का साहस कैसे हुआ जैसे ही नाताच्या यह बात सुनती है, उसे बड़ा गहरा सदमा पहुंचता है। वह मूर्ति सी हो जाती है। वह रोने लगती है और अपने पिता से कहती है कि वह लोमोवको वापस लाए। चुबुकोव बहुत दुःख अनुभव करता है। वह कहता है कि एक लड़की का बाप होना सबसे बड़ा दुर्भाग्य है वह लोमोव को बुलाने बाहर चला जाता है।

लोमोव दोबारा कमरे में प्रवेश करता है। नाताल्या सोचती है कि इस बार यह उसे फिर से नाराज नहीं करेगी। वह उसे प्रसन्न करने का प्रयत्न करती है। वह कहती है कि ये चरागाहें उसकी है। वह इस विषय को बदलना चाहती है ताकि वह (लोमोष) उसके सामने शादी का प्रस्ताव रखे। परंतु वह अब भी स्वस्थ नहीं है। उसे अब भी बराहट अनुभव हो रही है। वह मतलब की बात नहीं करता तोमोव अपने कुत्ते गेस, जिसे उसने 125 स्वत में खरीदा है, की तारीफ करना आरंभ करता है। परंतु नाताल्या कहती है कि उसका कुत्ता स्कूईजर, जिसे उसने 85 रुवल में खरीदा है, लोमोव के कुत्ते गैस से अच्छा है। दोनों ही अपने-अपने कुत्तों के गुणों का वर्णन करने लगते हैं। अब वे इस विषय पर झगड़ना शुरू कर देते हैं। वे फिर एक-दूसरे पर चीखना-चिल्लाना शुरू कर देते हैं। इस बीच में शुबुकोय आ जाता है। उनके झगड़े को समाप्त करने की अपेक्षा यह भी झगड़ने लगता है। इस मतभेद में लोगो की तबीयत खराब हो जाती है और वह बेहोश होकर कुर्सी पर गिर जाता है। दोनों पिता-पुत्री समझते हैं कि यह मर गया है। नाताया वित्ताप करने लग जाती है क्योंकि उसके विवाह का अवसर जाता रहा है।


कुछ देर के पश्चात् लोमोव होश में आता है। चुबुकोव लोमोव से कहता है कि वह (नाताल्या) विवाह के लिए तैयार है, इसलिए वह उससे शादी कर ले। नातात्या भी अपनी सहमति प्रकट करती है। चुबुकोव एक पल भी नहीं गवाता और उन दोनों के हाथ मिला देता है। वह उन दोनों को एक-दूसरे का चुम्बन लेने के लिए कहता है। परंतु शीघ्र ही वे दोनों फिर झगड़ने लग जाते हैं। अपने-अपने कुत्तों की विशेषताओं पर वाद-विवाद करने लग जाते हैं। शुबुकोष उन्हें फिर शांत करने का प्रयत्न करता है और इसके साथ ही नाटक समाप्त हो जाता है।

Full Explanation

A drawing-room in CHUBUKOVS house. LOMOV enters, wearing a dress-jacket and white gloves CHUBUKOV rises to meet him.
चुबुकोव के घर में एक बैठक सोमोष प्रवेश करता है, सूट के साथ एक जैकेट और सफेद दस्ताने पहने हुए चुबुकोव उसका स्वागत करने के लिए उठ खड़ा होता है।

CHUBUKOV: My dear fellow, whom do I see! Ivan Vassilevitch! I am extremely glad! [Squeezes his hand Now this is a surprise, my darling...... How are you?
मेरे प्रिय जनाब, यह मैं किसे देख रहा हूँ। इवान वसिलेविच बहुत खुशो मुझे (उसके हाथ को है) अब यह तो एक अजूबा है, मेरे प्रिय क्या हाल है?

LOMOV: Thank you. And how may you be getting on?
आपका धन्यवाद है। और आपका कैसे चल रहा है?

CHUBUKOV: We just get along somehow, my angel, thanks to your prayers, and so on. Sit down. please do..... Now, you know, you shouldn't forget all about your neighbours, my darling. My dear fellow, why are you so formal in your get-up! Evening dress, gloves, and so on. Can you be going anywhere, my treasure?
बस चल रहा है, मेरे फरिश्ते तुम्हारी दुआओं का धन्यवाद है, और क्या कहूँ। बैठ जाओ, कृपया बैठ जाओ । अब, तुम्हें पता हो है, तुम्हें अपने पड़ोसियों को भूलना नहीं चाहिए, मेरे लाडले मेरे प्यारे हन्दुर तुम अपनी पोशाक में इतने औपचारिक क्यों बने हुए हो। सायंक की पोशाक, दस्ताने, और क्या-क्या क्या तुम कहीं जा रहे हो, मेरी जान?

LOMOV: No. I've come only to see you, honoured Stepan Stepanovitch.
नहीं। मैं केवल आप से मिलने आया है, सम्मान योग्य स्टेपान स्टेपानोविच

CHUBUKOV: Then why are you in evening dress, my precious? As if you're paying a New Year's Eve visit!
तो फिर तुमने यह सायंकाल वाली पोशाक क्यों पहनी हुई है, मेरे प्रिय? ऐसा लगता है कि मानो नव वर्ष की पूर्व संध्या पर किसी से मिलने जा रहे हो ।

LOMOV: Well, you see, it's like this. [Takes his arm] I've come to you, honoured Stepan Stepanovitch, to trouble you with a request. Not once or twice have I already had the privilege of applying to you for help, and you have always, so to speak.... I must ask your pardon; I am getting excited. I shall drink some water, honoured Stepan Stepanovitch [Drinks.]
हां, देखिए, बात यह है (उसकी बांह पकड़ लेता है) मैं आपके पास आया हूँ सम्मान योग्य स्टेपान स्टेपानोविच आपको एक प्रार्थना का कष्ट देने। आपके पास सहायता के लिए प्रार्थना करने का सम्मान मुझे पहले ही केवल एक या दो बार प्राप्त नहीं हुआ है, और आपने सदा हो, कहिए कि । मुझे आपसे क्षमा मांगनी होगी, मैं उत्तेजित होता जा रहा हूं। मैं कुछ पानी पीना चाहूंगा, सम्मान योग्य स्टेपान स्टेपानोविच (पानी पीता है।)

CHUBUKOV: [Aside) He's come to borrow money. Shan't give him any! (Alond) What is it my beauty?
(एक तरफ मुंह करके स्वयं से) वह पैसे उधार लेने आया है। उसे कोई पैसा नहीं दूंगा । (ऊंचे स्वर में क्या काम है), मेरे गुलाब?

LOMOV: You see, Honoured Stepanovitch... I beg pardon. Stepan HonouritchI mean, I'm awfully excited, as you will please notice..... In short, you alone can help me, though I don't deserve it of course.... and haven't any right to count on your assistance....
देखिए, सम्मान योग्य स्टेपानोविच क्षमा कीजिएगा, स्टेपान आनरिचमेरे कहने का भाव है, मैं भयानक रूप से उत्तेजित हो रहा हूँ, जैसा कि आप कृपया देख ही सकते हैं..... संक्षेप में, केवल आप हो मेरी मदद कर सकते हैं, यद्यपि में इसका पात्र नहीं हूँ, सचमुच और मुझे कोई अधिकार नहीं है कि आप की सहायता पर निर्भर कर्म.......

CHUBUKOV: Oh. don't go round and round it, darling! Spit it out! Well?
अरे, बात को इधर-उधर घुमाते मत जाओ, प्यारे । जल्दी उगल दो! कहो?

LOMOV: One moment..... this very minute. The fact is, I've come to ask the hand of your daughter. Natalya Stepanovna, in marriage.
एक पल रुकिए अभी बताता हूँ। वास्तव में बात यह है, मैं विवाह के लिए आपकी बेटी नतल्या स्टेपानोचना का हाथ मांगने आया हूँ।

CHUBUKOV: Joyfully] By Jove! Ivan Vassilevitch! Say it again I didn't hear it all!
(प्रसन्नतापूर्वक) भगवान कसम | इवान बेसिलविच | दोबारा से कहा- मैंने बिस्कुल सुना नहीं है।

LOMOV: I have the honour to ask....
मुझे आपसे मांगने में सम्मान महसूस हो रहा है.

CHUBUKOV: [interrupting] My dear fellow ...... I'm so glad and so on Yo, indeed, and all that sort of thing. (Embraces and kines LOMOV] I've been hoping for it for a long time. It's been my continual desire. (Sheds a tear] And I've always loved you, my angel, as if you were my own son. May God give you both His help and His love and so on. and I did so much hope ..... What am I behaving in this idiotic way for? I'm off my balance with joy, absolutely off my balance! Oh, with all my soul....... I'll go and call Natalya, and all that.
(उसे बीच में ही करते हुए मेरे प्रिय हतूर मुझे कितनी खुशी हो रही है, और क्या-क्या हो सचमुच और इस तरह का वह सब कुछ। (लोमोव को गले लगाता है और उसे चूमता है) में बहुत देर से इसकी आशा कर रहा हूँ। यह मेरी निरन्तर इच्छा रही है। (एक आंसू बहा देता है) और मैं तुमसे सदा प्यार करता रहा हूँ, मेरे फरिश्ते, मानो तुम । मेरे ही पुत्र हो। ईश्वर तुम दोनों को अपनी सहायता और अपना प्यार प्रदान करे, और क्या-क्या तथा में कितनी स्यादा आशा रखता था । मैं इस मूर्खतापूर्ण ढंग से किस लिए व्यवहार करने लगा हूँ? खुशी में में हिल गया है, बिल्कुल अपना सन्तुलन खो बैठा है। अरे अपनी पूरी आत्मा सहित मैं अभी जाता हूँ और नतल्या को बुला कर लाता है, और बगैरा-वगैरा।

LOMOV: [Greatly moved] Honoured Stepan Stepanovitch, do you think I may count on her consent?
(अत्यन्त प्रभावित होते हुए) सम्मान योग्य स्टेपान स्टेपानोविच क्या आप समझते हैं कि मैं उसको सहमति का भरोसा कर सकता हूँ?

CHUBUKOV: darling, and ... Why, of course, my as if she won't consent! She's in love, egad, she's like a lovesick cat, and so on. cant be long! (Exit).
क्यों बिल्कुल मेरे लाडले और तुम समझते हो यह सहमत नहीं होगी। उसे प्यार हो गया है, ईश्वर सम्वह तो प्रेम में पागल हुई एक बिल्ली के जैसी है, और क्या-क्या मैं ज्यादा देर नहीं लगाऊंगा। (बाहर चला जाता है)

No. Word Meanings
1 Hearty large hearted (बड़े दिल वाला)
2 suspicious doubtful (शक्की)
3 squeezes wrings (निचोड़ना/दबाना)
4 get updress (पोशाक)
5 my treasure term of endearment (प्यार का संबोधन)
6 my precious term of endearment (प्यार का संबोधन)
7 privilege special right (विशेषाधिकार)
8 awfully greatly (बहुत अधिक)
9 deserve able (काविल होना)
10 Interrupting interfering (दखल देना)
11 embraces hugs (आलिंगन करना)
12 sheds drops (गिराना)
13 off my balance excited (उत्तेजित)
14 consent agreement (सहमति)
15 lovesick in search of love (प्यार की खोज में)।

LOMOV: It's cold ... I'm trembling all over, just as if I'd got an examination before me. The great thing is, I must have my mind made up. If I give myself time to think, to hesitate, to talk a lot, to look for an ideal, or for real love, then I'll never get married. Brr It's cold! Natalya Stepanovna is an excellent housekeeper, not bad-looking, well-educated. What more do I want? But I'm getting a noise in my ears from excitement. [Drinki] And it's impossible for me not to marry. In the first place, I'm already 35-a critical age, so to speak. In the second place. I ought to lead a quiet and regular life. I suffer from palpitations, I'm excitable and always getting awfully upset. At this very moment my lips are trembling, and there's a twitch in my right eyebrow. But the very worst of the way I sleep. I no sooner get into bed and begin to go off, when suddenly something in my left side gives a pull, and I can feel it in my shoulder and head........ I jump up like a lunatic, walk about a bit and lie down again, but as soon as I begin to get off to sleep there's another pull! And this may happen twenty times.....
बहुत ठण्ड हो रही है. मैं पूरा कांप रहा है मानो मेर सामने कोई परीक्षा हो। सबसे बड़ी बात यह है, मुझे अपना मन पक्का करना होगा। यदि मैंने स्वयं को सोचने का समय दे दिया, झिझकने का ज्यादा बातें करने का किसी आदर्श लड़की अथवास प्यार को ढूंढने का तो मेरा कभी नहीं हो पाएगा। अरर बहुत सदी है। नवल्या स्टेपानी एक शानदार गृहिणी है, देखने में बुरी नहीं है, सुशिक्षित है। मुझे और क्या चाहिए ? किन्तु घबराहट की वजह से मेर कानों में शोर होने लगा है। (पानी पीता है) और मेरे लिए शादी न करना असम्भव है। पहली बात तो यह है कि मेरी आयु पहले ही पैंतीस वर्ष की हो गई है एक कह सकते हैं। दूसरी बात यह है कि मुझे एक शान्त और व्यवस्थित जीवन बिताना चाहिए। मेरा दिल धकधक रहता है, मैं उत्तेजित हो उठता हूँ, और हमेशा भयानक रूप से परेशान हो उठता हूँ। इस पड़ी भी मेरे होंठ कांप रहे है और मेरी दाई भाँह में ऐंठन महसूस हो रही है। लेकिन इन सबसे बुरा वह ढंग है जैसे मैं सोता हूं ज्योंही में बिस्तर में सेटता हूँ और मुझे नींद आने लगती है तो अचानक मेरे शरीर में बाई तरफ कोई चीज झटका लगाती है और मैं इसे अपने कन्धे और सिर में महसूस कर सकता हूँ मैं एक पागल को भांति छलांग लगा कर खड़ा हो जाता है मोड़ा इधर-उधर घूमता हूँ और फिर लेट जाता हूं, किन्तु ज्यों ही मुझे नींद आने लगती है, एक और झटका लगता है। और ऐसा बाँस बार हो सकता है...।

(नवल्या स्टेपानोवना प्रवेश करती है।)

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Well, there! It's you, and papa said. 'Go; there's a merchant come for his goods.' How do you do, Ivan Vassilevitch?
अरे वाह ! तुम हो, लेकिन पापा ने तो कहा था, 'जाओ, वहां कोई व्यापारी अपने सामान के लिए आया है। तुम्हारा क्या हाल है, इवान वसिलेविच?

LOMOV: How do you do, honoured Natalya Stepanovna?
तुम्हारा क्या हाल है सम्मान योग्य नतल्या स्टेपानोवना?

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: You must excuse my apron and negliger. We're shelling you been here peas for drying. Why haven't for such a long time? Sit down...
मुझे मेरे इस एप्रन और चोरों के लिए मुझे क्षमा करना। हम मटरों को सुखाने के लिए उनके छिलके उतार रहे हैं। इतने लम्बे समय से तुम यहां क्यों नहीं आए हो बैठ जाओ....।

[They seat themselves.] Won't you have some lunch?
(वे बैठ जाते हैं।) क्या तुम कुछ खाने को लोगे?

LOMOV: No, thank you. I've had some already.
नहीं, धन्यवाद। मैं पहले ही कुछ खा चुका हूँ।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Then smoke. Here are the matches. The weather is splendid now, but yesterday it was so wet that the workmen didn't do anything all day. How much hay have you stacked? Just think, 1 felt greedy and had whole field cut, and now I'm not at all pleased about it because I'm afraid my hay may rot. I ought to have waited a bit. But what's this? Why, you're in evening dress! Well, I never! Are you going to a ball or what? Though I must say you look better.... Tell me, why are you got up like that?
तो फिर धूम्रपान कर लो। यह दियासलाई रखी है। अब मौसम शानदार हो गया है, किन्तु फल इतनी बारिश थी कि | दिन-भर मजदूरों ने कुछ नहीं किया तुमने सूखी घास कितनी जमा कर ली है ? तनिक देखो, मैंने लालच कर लिया और पूरा खेत कटवा लिया, और अब मुझे इस बारे में तनिक भी खुशी नहीं हो रही है क्योंकि मुझे डर है कि मेरी घास सड़ जाएगी। मुझे थोड़ा इन्तजार लेना चाहिए था। लेकिन यह क्या है ? तुमने तो सायंकाल वाली पोशाक पहनी हुई है। मैं सो कभी नहीं ! क्या तुम किसी नृत्य-सभा में या कहीं और जा रहे हो ? यद्यपि मुझे कहना होगा कि तुम देखने में ज्यादा | अच्छे लग रहे हो...मुझे बताओ कि तुम इस तरह बने उने क्यों हो ?

LOMOV: [Excited) You see, honoured Natalya Stepanovna.... the fact is, I've made up my mind to ask you to hear me out.... Of course, you'll be surprised and perhaps even angry, but a... [Aside) It's awfully cold!
(बेकरारी से) तुम जानती हो, सम्मान योग्य नसल्या स्टेपानोवना.... सच्ची बात यह है, मैंने अपना मन बना लिया। है कि तुमसे कहूं कि तुम मेरी पूरी बात सुन लो....। सचमुच तुम्हें हैरानी होगी, और शायद क्रोधित भी हो जाओगी, किन्तु अ.....(स्वयं से) भयानक सर्दी है ।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: What's the matter? [Pause] Well?
क्या बात है? (थोड़ी खामोशी) कहो?


LOMOV: I shall try to be bricf. You must know, honoured Natalya Stepanovna, that I have long, since my childhood, in fact, had the privilege of knowing your family. My late aunt and her husband, from whom, as you know, I inherited my land, always had the greatest respect for your father and your late mother. The Lomovs and the Chubukovs have always had the most friendly, and I might almost say the most affectionate, regard for each other. And, as you know, my land is a near neighbour of yours. You will remember that my Oxen Meadows touch your Birchwoods.
मैं अपनी बात संक्षेप में करने का यत्न करूंगा। सम्मान योग्य नतल्या स्टेपानोबना, तुम्हें पता होना चाहिए कि मुझे लम्बे समय से, वास्तव में अपने बचपन से ही, तुम्हारे परिवार को जानने का सम्मान प्राप्त है। मेरी दिवंगत मौसी तथा उसका पति जिनसे, जैसा कि तुम जानती ही हो, मुझे मेरी जमीन विरासत में प्राप्त हुई थी, सदा ही तुम्हारे पिता और तुम्हारी दिवंगत माता के लिए अधिकतम् सम्मान रखा करते थे। लोमोव और चुबुकोव परिवारों के लोग सदा ही एक दूसरे के प्रति अत्यन्त मैत्रीपूर्ण, और मैं कह सकता हूं कि अत्यन्त स्नेहपूर्ण सम्मान रखते रहे हैं। और जैसा कि तुम जानती हो, मेरी ज़मीन तुम्हारी जमीन के बिल्कुल पड़ोस में है तुम्हें याद होगा कि मेरी ऑक्सन मोडोज वाली चरागाह तुम्हारी भोजवृक्षों वाली जमीन को स्पर्श करती है।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Excuse my interrupting you. You say, 'my Oxen Meadows. But are they yours?
तुम्हारी बात को काटने के लिए मुझे क्षमा करना तुम कह रहे हो, 'मेरी ऑक्सन मीडोज । किन्तु क्या वह जमीन तुम्हारी है?

LOMOV: Yes, mine.
हां, मेरी है।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: What are i you talking about? Oxen Meadows are ours, not yours!
तुम क्या बात कर रहे हो? ऑक्सन मीडोज वाली जमीन हमारी है, तुम्हारी नहीं है।

LOMOV: No, mine, honoured Natalya Stepanovna.
नहीं, मेरी है, सम्मान योग्य नतल्या स्टेपानोवना |

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Well, I never knew that before. How do you make that out?
वाह, इसका मुझे पहले तो कभी पता नहीं था। तुम ऐसा अर्थ कैसे निकालते हो?

LOMOV: How? I'm speaking of those Oxen Meadows which are wedged in between your Birchwoods and the Burnt Marsh.
कैसे ? मैं उन ऑक्सन मोडोज वाली जमीन की बात कर रहा हूँ जो तुम्हारे भोजवृक्षों वाली जमीन और बट मार्श वाली जमीन के मध्य में पड़ती है।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Yes, yes...... they're ours.
हां, हां... वह हमारी है।

LOMOV: No, you're mistaken, honoured Natalya Stepanovna, they're mine.

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Just think, Ivan Vassilevitch! How long have they been yours?
नहीं, तुम्हें गलती लग रही है, सम्मान योग्य नतस्या स्टेपानोवना, वह मेरी है। तनिक सोच लो, इवान वसिलेविच यह कितनी देर मे तुम्हारी है?

LOMOV: How long? As long as I can remember
कितनी देर से? जब से मुझे याद आ सकता है।.

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Really, you won't get me to believe that!
सचमुच, तुम मुझे ऐसा विश्वास करने को मनवा नहीं सकते हो!


LOMOV: But you can see from the documents, honoured Natalya Stepanovna. Oxen Meadows, it's true, were once the subject of dispute, but now everybody knows that they are mine. There's nothing to argue about. You see, my aunt's grandmother gave the free use of these Meadows in perpetuity to the peasants of your father's grandfather, in return for which they were to make bricks for her. The peasants belonging to your father's grandfather had the free use of the Meadows for forty years, and had got into the habit of regarding them as their own, when it happened that......
लेकिन, सम्मान योग्य नतल्या स्टेपानीवना, तुम लिखित कागज देख सकती हो। ऑक्सन मीडोस वाली समीन, यह सत्य है कि किसी समय झगड़े का विषय हुआ करती थी, लेकिन अब सभी जानते हैं कि यह जमीन मेरी है। इसके बारे में विवाद की कोई बात नहीं है। तुम जानती हो, मेरी मौसी की नानी ने तुम्हारे पिता के दादा के मजदूरों को इस चरागाह का सदा के लिए मुफ्त प्रयोग करने को इजाजत दे दी थी, जिसके बदले में उन्हें उसके लिए ईरें बनानी होती थीं। तुम्हारे पिता के दादा के मजदूरों ने चालीस वर्षों तक चरागाह का मुफ्त इस्तेमाल किया, और इसे अपनी ही समझने की उनकी आदत हो गई थी. जब ऐसा हुआ....

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: No, it isn't at all like that! Both grandfather and great- grandfather reckoned that their land extended to Burnt Marsh which means that Oxen Meadows were ours. I don't see what there is to argue about. It's simply silly!
नहीं, ऐसा बिल्कुल नहीं है। दादा और परदादा दोनों | ऐसा मानते थे कि उनकी समीन बट मार्ग तक फैली हुई थी जिसका अर्थ यह बनता है कि ऑक्सन मोड समीन हमारी रही है। मुझे समझ नहीं आता कि इसके विषय में विवाद की क्या बात है। ऐसा करना बिल्कुल मूर्खता है।

LOMOV: I'll show you the documents, Natalya Stepanovna!
मैं तुम्हें लिखित कागत दिखा दूंगा, नतल्या स्टेपानोवना

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: No, you're simply joking, or making fun of me. What a surprise! We've had the land for nearly. three hundred years, and then we're suddenly told that it isn't ours! Ivan Vassilevitch, I can hardly believe my own ears. These Meadows aren't worth much to me. They only come to five dessiatins, and are worth perhaps 300 roubles, but I can't stand unfairness, Say what you will. I can't stand unfairness.
नहीं, तुम केवल मजाक कर रहे हो, या मेरा मटक उड़ा रहे हो। कितनी हैरानी वाली बात है। हमारे पास यह जमीन लगभग तीन सौ साल से थी और फिर अचानक हमें बताया जाता है कि यह हमारी नहीं है। इवान सिवि मुझे अपने ही कानों पर मुश्किल से विश्वास हो रहा है। इस चरागाह का मेरे लिए अधिक महत्व नहीं है। वह केवल रह एकड़ के करीब बनती है और शायद तीन सौ रूबल कीमत की होगी, किन्तु मैं अनुचित बात को सहन नहीं कर सकती हूँ। तुम यद्यपि कुछ भी कहो, मैं अन्याय सहन नहीं कर सकती हूँ।

LOMOV: Hear me out. I implore you! The peasants of your father's grandfather, as I have already had the honour of explaining to you used to bake bricks for my aunt's grandmother. Now my aunt's grandmother, wishing to make them a pleasant........
मेरी पूरी बात सुन लो, मैं तुमसे प्रार्थना करता हूँ। तुम्हारे पिता के दादा के मजदूर, जैसा कि तुम्हें पहले ही समझाने का सम्मान मुझे प्राप्त है, मेरी मौसी की नानी के लिए इंट पकाया करते थे। अब मेरी मौसी की नानी ने उन्हें खुश करने के लिए…..

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: I can't make bead or tail of all this about aunts and grandfathers and grandmothers. The Meadows are ours, that's all.
मुझे मौसियों, दादों और नानियों की इस कहानी का कोई सिर-पैर समझ नहीं आ रहा है। यह चरागाह हमारी है, यही पूरी बात है।

LOMOV: Mine.
मेरी है।

NATALYA STEPNOVNA: Ours! You can go on proving it for two days on end. you can go and put on fifteen dress-jackets, but I tell you they're ours, ours, ours! I don't want anything of yours and I don't want to give anything of mine. So there!
हमारी है। तुम दो दिन लगातार इसे सिद्ध करने का यान करते रहो, तुम जाकर पन्द्रह सूट-जैकेट पहन सकते हो, किन्तु मैं तुम्हें बता दूं कि वह जमीन हमारी है, हमारी, हमारी। मुझे तुम्हारी कोई भी नहीं चाहिए और अपनी कोई देना नहीं चाहती हूँ सुन लिया।

LOMOV: Natalya Stepanovna. I don't want the Meadows, but I am acting on principle. If you like, I'll make you a present of them.
नतल्या स्टेपानोवना, मुझे चरागाह की जरूरत नहीं है, लेकिन में सिद्धान्त की बात कर रहा हूँ। अगर तुम चाह मैं तुम्हें यह एक उपहार के रूप में दे सकता हूँ।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: I can make you a present of them myself, because they're mine! Your behaviour, Ivan Vassilevitch, ist strange, to say the least! Up to this we have always thought of you as a good neighbour, a friend: last year we lent you our threshing- machine, although on that account we had to put off our own threshing till November, but you behave to us as if we were gypsies. Giving me my own land, indeed! No, really, that's not at all neighbourly! In my opinion. it's even impudent, if you want to know.
मैं स्वयं यह तुम्हें एक उपहार के रूप में दे सकती हूँ क्योंकि वह मेरी है। तुम्हारा व्यवहार, इवान वसिलेविच, विचित्र है, अगर बात को बिना बढ़ाए कहा जाए। अब तक हम सदा तुम्हें एक अच्छा पड़ोसी, एक मित्र समझते आए हैं। पिछले वर्ष हमने तुम्हें अपनी गाहने (भूमा निकालने) वाली मशीन उधार दी थी. यद्यपि इसकी वजह से हमें अपनी गाहाई का काम नवम्बर तक स्थगित करना पड़ा था, किन्तु तुम हमारे साथ ऐसा व्यवहार कर रहे हो जैसे हम कोई जिप्सी हो मुझे मेरी हो जमीन दोगे, सचमुच नहीं, वास्तव में यह बिल्कुल भी पड़ोसियों वाली बात नहीं है। मेरे विचार से यह एक गुस्ताखी वाली बात है, यदि तुम जानना हो चाहते हो।

LOMOV: Then you make out that I'm 4 landgrabber? Madam, never in my life have I grabbed anybody else's land and I shan't allow anybody to accuse me of having done so. [Quickly steps to the carafe and drinks more water] Oxen Meadows are mine!
तो तुम यह सिद्ध कर रही हो कि मैं जमीन हथियाने काला आदमी हूँ? मैडम मैंने अपने जीवन में कभी किसी दूसरे को जमीन नहीं हथियाई है और मैं किसी को इजाजत नहीं दूंगा कि मुझ पर ऐसा करने का आरोप लगाए। (जल्दी से सुराही के पास जाता है और वहां से और पानी पोता है) ऑक्सन मीडोज मेरी है।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: It's not true, they're ours!
यह सत्य नहीं है, वे हमारी हैं।

LOMOV: Mine!
मेरी हैं |


NATALYA STEPANOVNA: It's not true! I'll prove it! I'll send my mowers out to the Meadows this very day!
यह सत्य नहीं है। मैं इसे साबित कर दूंगी। मैं अपने कटाई वालों को आज हो चरागाह में भेज दूंगी।

LOMOV: What?

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: My mowers will be there this very day!
मेरे कटाई वाले आज ही वहां पहुंच जाएंगे।

LOMOV: I'll give it to them in the neck!
मैं उनकी गर्दन में यह जड़ दूंगा।

तुम्हारी यह हिम्मत!

LOMOV: [Clutches at his heart] Oxen Meadows are mine You understand? Mine
(अपने दिल को जोर से भींचता है) ऑक्सन मांडोत मेरी है। समझती हो? मेरी है।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Please don't shout! You can shout yourself hoarse in your own house but here I must ask you to restrain yourself.
कृपया चिल्लाओ मत तुम अपने घर में चिल्ला-चिल्ला कर अपना गला फाड़ सकते हो, किन्तु यहाँ मुझे तुम से कहना होगा कि अपने आप को काबू में रखो।

LOMOV: If it wasn't madam, for this awful, excruciating palpitation, if my whole inside wasn't upset, I'd talk to you in a different way! [Yelli] Oxen Meadows are mine!
मैडम, अगर मेरा दिल इस तरह भयानक रूप से तेज धधकाने न लगा होता, अगर मेरा पूरे का पूरा अन्दर उपत पुथल न हो गया होता, तो मैं तुमसे अलग ढंग से बात करता। (चिल्ला कर बोलता है) ऑक्सन मोडीत मेरो हैं।\

हमारी है।

LOMOV: Mine!


LOMOV: Mine!

(चुबुकोव प्रवेश करता है)

CHUBUKOV: What's the matter? What are you shouting for?
क्या बात है? तुम लोग किस लिए चिल्ला रहे हो ?

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Papa, please, tell this gentleman who owns Oxen Meadows, we or he?
पापा, कृपया इस भद्र पुरुष को बता दो कि ऑक्सन मीडीज का मालिक कौन है, हम या वह?

CHUBUKOV: [LOMOV] Darling, the Meadows ate ours!
(लोमोवसे) मेरे लाडले. मांडोज हमारी है।

LOMOV: But, please, Stepan Stepanovitch, how can they be yours? Do be a reasonable man! My aunt's grandmother gave the Meadows for the temporary and free use of your grandfather's peasants. The peasants used the land for forty years and got accustomed to it as if it was their own when it happened that.....
लेकिन कृपया स्टेपान स्टेपानोविच ये आपको कैसे हो सकती हैं? तर्कसंगत आदमी बनिए। मेरी मौसी की नानी ने मोटोश को आप के दादा के मजदूरों को अस्थायी रूप से मुफ्त इस्तेमाल के लिए दे दिया था ये मजदूर चालीस वर्षों तक समीन का इस्तेमाल करते रहे और उन्हें ऐसी आदत पड़ गई मानो यह उनकी अपनी हो, अब ऐसा हुआ कि..

No. Word Meanings
1 Excellent very good
2 palpitations beating of the heart
3 twitch pull with a jerk
4 lunatic mad
5 apron apron
6 neglige gown
7 shelling removing shells
8 splendid beautiful
9 stacked stored
10 hay straw
11 balla kind of dance
12 pause stop
13 Inherited received as heir
14 affectionate loving
15 wedged lying in between
16 dispute quarrel
17 in perpetuity in continuation
18 reckoned Dessiatins a currency
19 unfairness injustice
20 implore request
21 bake heat
22 make head and tail understand
23 threshing separating grain and chaff
24 gypsies nomadic
25 impudent rude
26 landgrabber one who grabs others' land
27 carafea water container
28 Mowers crop cutters
29 meadows grasslands
30 clutches holds
31 restrain control
32 excruciating strong
33 Accustomed habitual

CHUBUKOV: Excuse me, my precious. You forget just this, that the peasants didn't pay your grandmother and all that, because the Meadows were in dispute, and so on. And now everybody knows that they're ours. It means that you haven't seen the plan.
क्षमा करना, मेरे हारे तुम केवल यही बात भूल रहे हरे, कि मजदूरों ने तुम्हारी नानी को कोई भुगतान इसलिए नहीं किया था क्योंकि मोटोस वाली वह जमीन झगड़े वाली थी, और वगैरा-वगैरा और अब हर कोई जानता है कि वह दमीन हमारी है। इसका अर्थ यह निकलता है कि तुम ने नक्शा नहीं देखा है।

LOMOV: I'll prove to you that they're mine!
मैं आपको साबित कर दूंगा कि जगह हमारी है।

CHUBUKOV: You won't prove it. my darling
तुम इसे साबित नहीं कर पाओगे, मेरे प्रिय

LOMOV: I shall
मैं कर दूंगा।

CHUBUKOV: Dear one, why yell like that? You won't prove anything just by yelling. I don't want anything of yours, and don't intend to give up what I have. Why should 1 And you know, my beloved, that if you propose to go on arguing about it. I'd much sooner give up the Meadows to the peasants than to you. There!
प्रिय, इस तरह क्यों चिल्लाते हो? तुम मात्र चिल्लाने से कुछ साबित नहीं कर पाओगे। मुझे तुम्हारी किसी चीज की कोई जरूरत नहीं है, और मैं उस चीज को छोड़ने का कोई विचार नहीं रखता हूँ जो मेरी है। मैं क्यों छोड़ दूं ? और तुम जानते हो, मेरे परम प्रिय, कि यदि तुम्हारा विचार इसके बारे में बहस करते रहने का है, तो मैं यह चरागाह वाली जमीन तुम्हें देने के बजाए मजदूरों को दे देना बेहतर समझुंगा समझे।

LOMOV: I don't understand! How have you the right to give away somebody else's property?
मुझे समझ नहीं आ रहा है। आपको किसी दूसरे की जायदाद की चीज को देने का अधिकार कैसे है?

CHUBUKOV: You may take it that I know whether I have the right.or not. Because young man, I'm not used to being spoken to in that tone of voice, and so on. 1. young man, am twice your age, and ask you to speak to me without agitating yourself, and all that.
तुम यह जान लो कि मुझे पता है कि मुझे अधिकार है या नहीं है। क्योंकि, ए नौजवान, मुझे इस बात की आदत नहीं है कि मेरे साथ कोई ऐसे सुर में बात करे, और वगैरा-वगैरा। मैं ए नौजवान, तुम से दुगनी आयु का है और तुम से कहता हूँ कि अपने को क्रोध में लाए बिना मुझसे बात कहो, और वगैरा-वगैरा।

LOMOV: No, you just think I'm a fool and want to have me on! You call my land yours, and then you want me to talk to you calmly and politely! Good neighbours don't behave like that, Stepan Stepanovitch ! You're not a neighbour, you're a grabber!
नहीं, आप केवल यह समझते हैं कि मैं एक मूर्ख आदमी हूं और मुझे दबाना चाहते हैं। आप मेरी जमीन को अपना कहते हैं, और तब आप चाहते हैं कि मैं आपसे शान्ति और विनम्रता से बात करूं। अच्छे पड़ोसी इस तरह से व्यवहार नहीं करते, स्टेपान स्टेपानोविच ! आप पड़ोसी नहीं हैं, आप एक छीना-झपटी करने वाले हैं !

CHUBUKOV: What's that? What did you say?
क्या है? क्या कहा तुमने?

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Papa, send the mowers out to the Meadows at once!
पापा, कटाई वालों को तुरन्त चरागाह में भेज दो।

CHUBUKOV: What did you say, sir?
तुमने क्या कहा था, श्रीमान्?

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Oxen Meadows are ours, and 1 shan't give them up, shan't give them up, shan't give them up!
ऑक्सन मोहोत हमारी है, और मैं उन्हें छोडूंगी नहीं, उन्हें नहीं छोड़ेगी, नहीं छोडूंगी।

LOMOV: We'll see! I'll have the matter taken to court, and then I'll show you!
हम देख लेंगे। मैं इस मामले को कचहरी में ले जाऊंगा, और फिर मैं आपको दिखा दूंगा!

CHUBUKOV: To court? You can take it to court, and all that! You can !! know you: you're just on the lookout for a chance to go to court, and all that. You pettifogger! All your people were like that! All of them!
कचहरी में ? तुम इसे कचहरी ले जा सकते हो, और बगैरा-वगैरा ले जा सकते हो। मैं तुम्हें जानता हूँ तुम्हें कचहरी में जाने के मौके की तलाश ही रहती है, और गैरा-बौरा अरे चालवात! तुम्हारे सब लोग वैसे ही थे। सब के सब

LOMOV: Never mind about my people! The Lomovs have all been honourable people, and not one has ever been tried for embezzlement, like your grandfather!
मेरे लोगों की चिन्ता मत करो। सभी लोमोव सम्मानित लोग रहे हैं, और उनमें से कभी एक पर भी गवन करने का मुकदमा नहीं चला है, आपके दादा की भांति|

CHUBUKOV: You Lomovs have had lunacy in your family, all of you!
तुम लोमोवों के तो परिवार में हो पागलपन रहा है, तुम सब में

सब सब, सभी में।

CHUBUKOV: Your grandfather was a drunkard, and your younger aunt, Nastasya Mihailovna, ran away with an architect, and so on....
तुम्हारा नाना एक शराबी था, और तुम्हारी छोटी मौसी, नस्तस्या मिहेलोवना एक भवन निर्माता के साथ भाग गई थी, और बगैरा-वगैरा......

LOMOV: And your mother was hump backed. [Clutches at his heart] Something pulling in my side... My head...... Help 1 Water
और आपकी मां कुबड़ी थी। (अपने दिल को कस कर पकड़ लेता है) मेरे अन्दर मेरी बगल में कोई चीज़ खाँचे जा रही है. मेरा सिर बचाओ। पानी।

CHUBUKOV: Your father was a guzzling gambler!
तुम्हारा बाप एक मोटा जुआरी था।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: And there haven't been many backbiters to equal your aunt!
और चुगली करने में तुम्हारी मौसी की बराबरी कर पाने वाले स्यादा लोग नहीं थे।

LOMOV: My left foot has gone to sleep........ You're an intriguer... Oh, my heart! And it's an open secret that before the last elections you bri.....I can see stars.... Where's my hat?
मेरा बाय पांव सो गया है.... तुम एक षड्यन्त्रकारी हो...। ओह, मेरा दिल और यह एक खुला रहस्य है कि पिछले चुनावों से पूर्व तुमने रिश्व. मुझे सितारे दिखने लगे हैं....। मेरा हैट कहां है?

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: It's low! It's dishonest! It's mean!
यह घटिया बात है। बेईमानी है। कमीनापन है।

CHUBUKOV: And you're just a malicious, doublefaced intriguer! Yes!
और तुम मात्र एक दुर्भावनापूर्ण, दोहरे चेहरे वाले

LOMOV: Here's my hat. My heart! Which way? Where's the door? Oh.... I think I'm dying! My foot's quite numb...... [Goes to the door.]
मेरा हैट यहां है मेरा दिल किधर जाऊं? दरवाता किधर है? ओह मेरे विचार में मैं मरने लगा हूँ। मेरा पांव बिल्कुल सुन्न हो गया है...। (दरवारों की तरफ जाता है)

CHUBUKOV: [Following him] And don't set foot in my house again!
(उसके पीछे-पीछे) और दोबारा मेरे घर में पांव मत रखना।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Take it to court! We’ll see!
यह मामला कचहरी से चलते हैं। देखा जाएगा।

[LOMOV stagges out.)
(लोमोवलड़खड़ाता हुआ बाहर चला जाता है।)

CHUBUKOV: Devil take him! [Walks about in excitement.]
उसे शैतान ले जाए। (उत्तेजित हुआ इधर-उधर चक्कर काटता है।)

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: What a rascal! What trust can one have in one's neighbours after that!
कितना दुष्ट आदमी है। इसके बाद आदमी पड़ोसियों पर क्या भरोसा कर सकता है।

CHUBUKOV: The villain! The Scarectow!
दुष्ट चूहा।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: The monster! First, he takes our land and then he has the impudence to abuse us.
राक्षस पहले हमारी जमीन ले लेता है और फिर ऊपर से हमें गालियां देने की गुस्ताखी भी करता है।

CHUBUKOV: And that blind hen, yes, that turnip-ghost has the confounded cheek to make a proposal, and so on! What? A proposal!
और वह अन्धी मुर्गी जैसी शक्ल वाला, हो, वह शलगम की शक्ल वाला भूत, विवाह का प्रस्ताव करने की विचित्र बदतमीजी भी करता है, और वगैरा-वगैरा क्या बात करता है? विवाह का प्रस्ताव

कैसा प्रस्ताव?

CHUBUKOV: Why, he came here to propose to you.
हाँ, यह तुमसे विवाह का प्रस्ताव करने आया था।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: To propose? To me? Why didn't you tell me so before?
विवाह का प्रस्ताव करने? मुझसे? आपने मुझे पहले ऐसा क्यों नहीं बताया?

CHUBUKOV: So, he dresses up in evening clothes. The stuffed sausage! The wizen-faced frump!
इसीलिए तो सायंकाल वाली पोशाक पहनकर आया था। आलू का समोसा! झुर्रियों भरे चेहरे वाला फूहड़ आदमी।

No. Word Meanings
1 yelling shouting
2 give up renounce
3 right claim
4 agitating becoming exciting
5 calmly peacefully
6 Pettifogger a clever person
7 tried sued
8 embezzlement financial misappropriation
9 Iunacy madness
10 drunkard one who drinks too much wine
11 hump backed with curved back
12 guzzling drinking
13 gambler one who gambles
14 backbiters criticizing others behind their backs
15 intriguer planner
16 malicious full of illwill
17 numb senseless
18 staggers falls
19 rascal rogue
20 villain scoundrel
21 scarecrow figure in the field to scare birds
22 monster devil
23 impudence arrogance
24 blind hen an abuse
25 turnip ghost an abuse
26 confounded confused
27 stuffed sausage an abuse
28 wizen faced
29 frump an abuse

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: To propose to me? Ah! [Falls into an easy-chair and wails) Bring him back! Back! Ah! Bring him here.
मुझसे विवाह का प्रस्ताव करने? हाथ (एक आराम कुर्सी में गिर पड़ती है और विलाप करने लगती है। उसे वापस ले कर आओ। वापस हाय उसे यहाँ ले कर आओ।

CHUBUKOV: Bring whom here?
किसे यहां ले कर आऊं?

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Quick, quick! I'm ill! Fetch him! [Hysterics.]
जल्दी जल्दी मेरी हालत खराब है। उसे लेकर आओ! (रोने-चिल्लाने लगती है)

CHUBUKOV: What's that? What's the matter with you? [Chusches at his bead] Oh, unhappy man that I am! I'll shoot myself! I'll hang myself! We're done for her!
यह क्या है? तुम्हें क्या हो गया है? (अपना सिर पकड़ लेता है) ओह, मैं कितना दुःखी आदमी हूं। मैं स्वयम् को गोली मार लूंगा। मैं स्वयं को फांसी लगा लूंगा। उसकी वजह से हम नष्ट हो गए हैं।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: I'm dying! Fetch him!
मैं मर रही हूं। उसे लेकर आओ।

CHUBUKOV: Tfoo! At once. Don't yell!
जा रहा हूँ। अभी चिल्लाओं मत ।

out. A pause. NATALYA STEPANOVNA wails] (बाहर को भाग जाता है। थोड़ी खामोशी नवस्या

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: What have they done to me? Fetch him back! Fetch him! A pause CHUBUKOV runs in
स्टेपानोवना विलाप करने लगती है।) उन्होंने मुझे क्या कर दिया है? उसे वापस लेकर आओ। उसे लेकर आओ! (थोड़ी खामोशी कोष भागता हुआ अन्दर आता है।)

CHUBUKOV: He's coming, and so on. devil take him! Ouf Talk to him yourself; I don't want to..... him!
वह आ रहा है, और वगैरा-वगैरा, शैतान उसे ले जाए। उफ उससे स्वयं बात कर लेना, मैं उससे बोलना नहीं चाहता......

(विलाप करती हुई) उसे लेकर आओ ।

CHUBUKOV: [Yelle] He's coming. I tell you. Oh, what a burden, Lord, to be the father of a grown-up daughter! I'll cut my throat! I will, indeed! We cursed him, abused him, drove him out, and it's all you ... you!
(चिल्लाते हुए) वह आ रहा है, तुम्हें कह रहा हूँ। ओह, कितनी मुसीबत है, ईश्वर, एक जवान लड़की का पिता होना। मैं अपना गला काट लूंगा! सचमुच ऐसा कर लूंगा। हमने उसे बुरा-भला कहा, उसे गालियां दीं, उसे बाहर भगा दिया, और यह सब तुम्हारी वजह से.... तुम्हारी वजह से।

नहीं, आपकी वजह से ।

CHUBUKOV: I tell you it's not my fault. [LOMOV appears at the door.] Now you talk to him yourself. [Exits]
मैं तुमसे कह देता हूँ, यह मेरा दोष नहीं है। (लोमोव दरवाजे पर दिखाई देता है। अब तुम खुद ही उससे बात कर लो। (बाहर चला जाता है)

[LOMOV enters, exchausted.]
(लोमोव प्रवेश करता है, थका हुआ-सा।)

LOMOV: My heart's palpitating awfully. My foot's gone to sleep. There's something that keeps pulling in my side......
मेरा दिल भयानक रूप से धक-धक कर रहा है। मेरा पांव सो गया है। कोई चीरा है जो मेरी बगल में खाँच रही है..

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Forgive us, Ivan Vassilevitch, we were all a little heated. I remember now: Oxen Meadows really are yours.
हमें क्षमा कर दो, इवान बेसिलविच, हम सभी थोड़ा गर्मी में आ गए थे। मुझे अब याद आ गया है ऑक्सन मोडोज सचमुच तुम्हारी हैं।

LOMOV: My heart's beating awfully. My Meadows....My eyebrows are both twitching.....
मेरा दिल भयानक रूप से धड़क रहा है। मेरी चरागाह.....मेरी दोनों भी ऐंठ रही है...

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: The Meadows are yours, yes, yours. Do sit down. [They sit.] We were wrong.
चरागाह तुम्हारी है, हो, तुम्हारी है। बैठ जाओ। (ये बैठ जाते हैं। हम गलती में थे।

LOMOV: I did it on principle. My land is worth little to me, but the principle......
मैं सिद्धान्त की वजह से कह रहा था। मेरी जमीन की मेरे लिए लगभग कोई कीमत नहीं है, किन्तु सिद्धान्त....

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Yes, the principle, just so. Now let's talk of something else.
हां, सिद्धान्त, बिस्कुल ठीक बात है। अब आओ, कोई और बात करते हैं।

LOMOV: The more so as I have evidence. My aunt's grandmother gave the land to your father's grandfather's peasants.....
मेरी मौसी की नानी ने तुम्हारे पिता के दादा के मजदूरों और इसलिए भी क्योंकि मेरे पास सबूत है।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Yes, yes, let that pass. [Aside] I wish I knew how to get him started.
.. हां हां छोड़ो उस बात को (एक तरफ होकर स्वयं से) काश, मुझे पता होता कि उससे बात कैसे शुरू करवाऊं।

[Aloud] Are you going to start shooting soon?
(ऊंचे स्वर में क्या तुम शीघ्र ही शिकार पर जाना शुरू करने वाले हो?

LOMOV: I'm thinking of having a go at the blackcock, honoured Natalya
मैं सोच रहा हूं कि कटाई का काम समाप्त होने के बाद तीतर का शिकार करने जाया करूं, सम्मान योग्य नतल्या

Stepanovna, after the harvest. Oh, have you heard? Just think, what a misfortune I've had! My dog Guess, who you know, has gone lame.
स्टेपानोवना ओह, क्या तुमने सुना है ? तनिक सोचो, मुझे कितना बढ़ा दुर्भाग्य आ गया था। मेरा कुत्ता गेम, जिसे तुम जानती ही हो, लंगड़ा हो गया है।

कितने दुःख की बात है। कैसे?

LOMOV: I don't know. Must have got his leg twisted or bitten by some other dog [Sighi] My very best dog, to say nothing of the expense. I gave Mironov 125 roubles for him.
पता नहीं कैसे अवश्य उसको टांग में बल आ गया होगा या किसी दूसरे कुते ने काट लिया होगा। (आह भरता है) मेरा सबसे अच्छा कुता उस पर हुए खर्च को तो बात ही मत करो। मैंने मिरोनीय को उसके लिए एक सौ पच्चीस स्वल दिए थे।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: It was too much, Ivan Vassilevitch.
यह तो बहुत ज्यादा मे, इवान वसिलेविच

LOMOV: I think it was very cheap. He's a first-rate dog.
मैं समझता हूँ यह बहुत सस्ता दाम था। वह सर्वोत्तम किस्म का कुत्ता है।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Papa gave 85 roubles for his Squeezer, and Squeezer is heaps better than Guess!
पापा ने अपने स्क्वीडर के लिए पचास दिए थे. और वीर गैस से देरों अच्छा है।

LOMOV: Squeezer better than Guess? What an idea! [Laughs) Squeezer better than Guess!
स्वीर गैस से ज्यादा अच्छा है? क्या सोच है। (हंसा है) स्क्वीतर गेस्स से ज्यादा अच्छा!

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Of course, he's better! Of course, Squeezer is young. he may develop a bit, but on points and pedigree he's better than anything that even Volchanetsky has got.
निस्सन्देह वह ज्यादा अच्छा है। निसन्देह आयु में छोटा है, थोड़ा और बड़ा हो जाएगा, किन्तु जहाँ तक उसके गुणों और नस्त का सम्बन्ध है, यह किसी भी कुत्ते से अच्छा है, उससे भी जो बोलचानेस्कों के पास है।

LOMOV: Excuse me. Natalya Stepanovna. but you forget that he is overshor, and an overshot always means the dog is a bad hunter!
क्षमा करना, नवल्या स्टेमालोचना, किन्तु तुम भूल रही हो कि वह ऊंचे जबड़े वाला है, और ऊंचे जबड़े का सदा अर्थ होता है कि वह कुत्ता एक घटिया शिकारी है।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Overshot, is he? The first time I hear it!
ऊंचा जबड़ा क्या वह ऐसा है मैं तो पहली बार तुमसे सुन रही हूँ ।


LOMOV: I assure you that his lower jaw is shorter than the upper.
मैं तुम्हें विश्वास दिलाता हूँ कि उसका नीचे वाला उसके ऊपर वाले जबड़े से छोटा है।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Have you measured?
क्या तुमने इसे माप कर देखा है?

LOMOV: Yes. He's all right at following, of course, but if you want to get hold of anything...
हां पीछा करने के लिए तो यह ठीक है, निस्सन्देह, किन्तु तुम यदि किसी चीज को पकड़ना चाहते हो....

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: In the first place, our Squeezer is a thoroughbred animal, the son of Harness and Chisels while there's no getting at the pedigree of your dog at all. He's old and as ugly as worn-out cab-horse.
पहली बात तो यह है कि हमारा स्क्योर अ जानवर है, हारने और का बेटा है जबकि तुम्हारे कुते की नाल का बिल कोई हिसाब नहीं है। यह मुदा है और देखने में उतना होभा लगता है जितना कि तोगा हांकने वाला कोई घिसा-पिटा घोड़ा।

LOMOV: He is old, but I wouldn't take five Squeezers for him. Why, how can you ? Guess is a dog as for Squeezer, well, it's too funny to argue. Anybody you like has a dog as good as Squeezer...you may find them under every bush almost. Twenty-five roubles would be a handsome price to pay for him.
यह ख़ुदा है, लेकिन मैं उसे पांच स्क्वीन्सरों के बदले में भी नहीं दूंगा हो, ऐसा कोई कैसे कर सकता है ? गेस्स एक कुत्ता है। जहां तक स्क्वीतर का सम्बन्ध है, तो हो, उसके बारे में तो बहस करना ही बहुत मशाक को बात लगती है। तुम जिसे भी कह लो, उसके पास स्क्वीजर के जैसा कुत्ता होगा... तुम ऐसे कुत्ते लगभग हर झाड़ी के नीचे देख सकती हो। इसके लिए पच्चीस रूबल भी देना एक बढ़िया कीमत होगी।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: There's some demon of contradiction in you today, Ivan Vassilevitch. First you pretend that the Meadows are yours; now, that Guess is better than Squeezer. I don't like people who don't say what they mean, because you know perfectly well that Squeezer is a hundred times better than your silly Guess. Why do you want to say he isn't?
आज, इवान वसिलेविच, तुम्हारे अन्दर कोई झगड़ा करने वाला भूत घुसा पड़ा है। पहले तुम यह नाटक कर रहे थे कि यह चरागाह तुम्हारी है और अब यह कह हो कि स्क्वीतर से बेहतर है। मुझे ऐसे लोग पसन्द नहीं है जो कहते कुछ हो, किन्तु उनका अर्थ कुछ और हो, क्योंकि तुम यह बिल्कुल अच्छी तरह से जानते हो कि तुम्हारे बेकार के गेस्स को अपेक्षा स्क्वीडर सौ गुणा ज्यादा अच्छा है। तुम ऐसा क्यों कहना चाहते हो कि वह ऐसा नहीं है ?


LOMOV: I see, Natalya Stepanovna, that you consider me either blind or a fool. You must realize that Squeezer is overshot!
मेरे विचार से, नतल्या स्टेपानीवना, तुम मुझे या तो अन्या समस्ती हो या मूर्ख तुम्हें अवश्य महसूस हो जाना चाहिए कि स्क्वीजर का जबड़ा ऊंचा है।

यह सत्य नहीं है।

LOMOV: He is!
उसका जबड़ा ऊंचा है।

यह सत्य नहीं है।

LOMOV: Why shout. madam?
मैडम, चिल्ला क्यों रही हो?

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Why talk rot? It's awful! It's time your Guess was shot, and you compare him with Squeezer!
तुम बकवास क्यों कर रहे हो ? भयानक बात है। अम समय है कि तुम्हारे गेस्स को गोली मार दी जाए और तुम उसकी तुलना स्क्वीटर के साथ कर रहे हो।

LOMOV: Excuse me. I cannot continue this discussion; my heart is palpitating.

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: I've noticed that those hunters argue most who know least.
क्षमा करो, मैं इस बहस को जारी नहीं रख सकता हूँ मेरा दिल तेरा धकधकाने लगा है। मैंने देखा है कि ऐसे शिकारी सबसे ज्यादा बहस करते हैं, जिन्हें सबसे कम ज्ञान होता है।

LOMOV: Madam, please be silent. My heart is going to pieces. [Shouts) Shut up!
मैडम, कृपया खामोश हो जाओ मेरा दिल टुकड़े-टुकड़े होने लगा है। (चिल्ला कर कहता है खामोश हो जाओ।)

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: I can't shut up until you acknowledge that Squeezer is a hundred times better than your Guess!
मैं तब तक खामोश नहीं हूंगी जब तक तुम इस बात को स्वीकार नहीं करते कि स्क्वीजर गेस्स से सौ गुणा बेहतर है।

LOMOV: A hundred times worse! Be hanged to your Squeezer! His head..... eyes.... shoulder....
एक सौ गुणा घटिया है। जाओ अपने स्क्वीतर के साथ लटक जाओ। उसके सिर आंखों कन्धे के साथ...

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: There's no need to hang your silly Guess; he's half-dead already!
तुम्हारे बेकार के गेस्स को लटकाने की कोई जरूरत नहीं है; आधा मरा हुआ तो वह पहले ही है।

LOMOV: [tweeps] Shut up My heart's bursting!
(रोने लगता है) बोलो मथ मेरा दिल फट रहा है।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: I shan't shut up. [Enter CHUBUKOV]
मैं बोलना बन्द नहीं करूंगी (चुबुकोव प्रवेश करता है।

CHUBUKOV: What's the matter now?
अब क्या बात है?

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Papa, tell as truly, which is the better dog, our Squeezer or his Guess?
पापा, हमें सच-सच बताओ, बेहतर कुत्ता कौन-सा है, हमारा स्क्वीवर या उसका गैस्स ?

LOMOV: Stepan Stepanovitch, I implore you to tell me just one thing is your Squeezer overshot or not? Yes, or no?
स्टेपान स्टेपानोविच, मैं आपसे प्रार्थना करता हूँ कि मुझे सिर्फ एक बात बता दीजिए क्या आपके स्क्वीवर का जड़ा ऊंचा है अथवा नहीं नहीं?

CHUBUKOV: And suppose he is? What does it matter? He's the best dog in the district for all that, and so on.
और मान लो कि ऐसा है? इससे क्या अन्तर पड़ता है ? इतना सब होते हुए भी वह इस क्षेत्र में सबसे बढ़िया कुत्ता है, और वगैरा-बगैरा

LOMOV: But isn't my Guess better? Really, now?
क्या मेरा गेस्स ज्यादा अच्छा नहीं है? सचमुच, अब?

CHUBUKOV: Don't excite yourself, my precious one! Allow me. Your Guess certainly has his good points. He's pure bred, firm on his feet, has well-sprung ribs. and all that. But, my dear man, if you want to know the truth, that dog has two defects: he's old and he's short in the muzzle.
स्वयं को उत्तेजित मत करो, मेरे लाल मेरी बात सुनो। तुम्हारे गेम्स में निश्चय ही उसकीय है। वह खालिस नस्ती है, अपने पैरों में दुता रखता है, उसकी पसलियां अच्छी फूली हुई हैं, और वगैरा-वगैरा लेकिन मेरे प्यारे आदमी, अगर तुम सच्ची बात जानना चाहते हो तो उस कुत्ते में दो दोष हैं वह बूढ़ा है और उसका यूथन छोटा है।

LOMOV: Excuse me, my heart... Let's take the facts. You will remember that on the Marusinsky hunt my Guess ran neck and-neck with the Count's dog, while your Squeezer was left a whole verst behind.
क्षमा कीजिएगा, मेरा दिल...। हम असलियतों की बात करें। आपको याद होगा कि मर्सिसकी वाले शिकार के समय मेरा गेस्स काउण्ट के कुने के साथ बिस्कुल बराबर में भागा था, जबकि आपका स्वीतर पूरे दो किलोमीटर पीछे रह गया था।

CHUBUKOV: He got left behind because the Count's whipper-in hit him with his whip.
यह पीछे इसलिए रह गया था क्योंकि काउण्ट के शिकारी कुत्ता अधिकारी ने उसे अपने चाबुक से मार दिया था।

LOMOV: And with good reason. The dogs are running after a fox, when Squeezer goes and starts worrying a sheep!
और ऐसा करने का एक अच्छा कारण था कुत्ते एक लोमड़ के पीछे भाग रहे थे, जब स्क्वीजर ने जाकर एक भेड़ को परेशान करना शुरू कर दिया।

CHUBUKOV: It's not true! My dear fellow, I'm very liable to lose my temper, and so, just because of that, let's stop arguing. You started because everybody is always jealous of everybody else's dogs. Yes, we're all like that! You too, sir, aren't blameless! You no sooner begin with this, that and the other, and all that... I remember everything!
यह सत्य नहीं है। मेरे प्रिय दोस्त मुझे बहुत जल्दी क्रोध आ जाता है, और इसलिए इसी वजह से, हम बहस करना बन्द कर दें। बहस तुमने शुरू की थी क्योंकि प्रत्येक व्यक्ति हर दूसरे आदमी के कुत्तों से हमेशा ईर्ष्या करता है। हो हम सब इसी तरह के हैं। तुम भी श्रीमान बिना दोष के नहीं हो। ज्यों हो तुम ऐसी बात शुरू करोगे, तो दूसरा आदमी और वगैरा-वगैरा.....मुझे हर बात याद है।

LOMOVI remember too!
मुझे भी याद है।

CHUBUKOV: [Teasing him) Iremember, too! What do you remember?
(उसे चिढ़ाते हुए मुझे भी याद है तुम्हें क्या है?

LOMOV: My heart.....my foot's gone to sleep. I can't....
मेरा दिल.. मेरा पांव सो गया है। मैं अब नहीं...

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: [Teasing: My heart 1 What sort of a hunter are you? You ought to go and lie on the kitchen oven and catch black beetles, not go after foxes! My heart!
(चिड़ाते हुए) मेरा दिल तुम किस तरह के शिकारी हो? तुम्हें जाकर रसोईयर के चूल्हे पर बैठ जाना चाहिए और वहां काले भ्रंगों (तिलचट्टों) को पकड़ना चाहिए, और लोमड़ों के पीछे नहीं भागना चाहिए। मेरा दिल|

CHUBUKOV: Yes really, what sort of a hunter are you, anyway? You ought to sit at home with your palpitations, and not go tracking animals. You could go hunting, but you only go to argue with people and interfere with their dogs and so on. Let's change the subject in case I lose my temper. You're not a hunter at all, anyway!
हां सचमुच, तुम किस तरह के शिकारी हो, किसी भी तरह से ? तुम्हें अपनी तेज धक-धक लेकर घर पर बैठना चाहिए, और शिकार के लिए जानवरों को ढूंढ़ते नहीं फिरना चाहिए। तुम शिकार करने जा सकते हो, लेकिन तुम केवल लोगों के साथ बहस करने के लिए जाते हो और उनके कुत्तों में दखल-अन्दाजी करने के लिए और कौरा-वगैरा आओ हम इस विषय को बदल दें, कहीं ऐसा न हो कि मुझे क्रोध आ जाए तुम एक शिकारी बिल्कुल नहीं हो, किसी भी तरह से)|

LOMOV: And are you a hunter? You only go hunting to get in with the Count and to intrigue. Oh, my heart! You're an intriguer!
और क्या आप एक शिकारी हैं? आप शिकार पर केवल काउण्ट के साथ नरादीको स्थापित करने के लिए और षड्यन्त्र रचने के लिए जाते हैं। ओह, मेरा दिल. आप एक षड्यन्त्रकारी हैं।

CHUBUKOV: What? I am an intriguer? (Shouts) Shut up!
क्या? मैं एक षड्यन्त्रकारी हूं? (चिल्लाता है) बकवास बन्द करो।

LOMOV: Intriguer!

छोकरा! कुत्ते का बच्चा!

LOMOV: Old rat! Jesuit!
बूढ़ा चूहा पाखण्डी धर्मात्मा

CHUBUKOV: Shut up or I'll shoor you like a partridge! You fool
चुप हो जाओ नहीं तो मैं तुम्हें एक तीतर की तरह गोली मार दूंगा। मूर्ख कहाँ का

LOMOV: Everybody knows that oh, my heart! -your late wife used to beat you... My feet....... temples....... sparks.....! fall, I fall!!
हर कोई जानता है कि ओह, मेरा दिल तुम्हारी दिवंगत पत्नी तुम्हें पीटा करती थी. मेरे पांव मेरी कनपटियां....चिंगारियां निकल रही है. मैं गिर रहा हूं, मैं गिर रहा हूँ।

CHUBUKOV: And you're under the slipper of your house-keeper!
और तुम्हारी नौकरानी तुम्हें अपने जूतों के नीचे रखती है।

LOMOV: There, there, there..... my heart's burst! My shoulder's come off! Where is my shoulder! I die [Fialls into an armchair] A doctor! (Faints)
लो, लो, लो मेरा दिल फट गया है। मेरा कथा अलग हो गया है। मेरा कन्धा कहा है। मैं मर रहा हूँ। (एक आराम- कुर्सी में गिर जाता है) कोई डाक्टर बुलाओ। (बेहोश)

CHUBUKOV: Boy! Milksop! Fool! I'm sick! [Drinks water] Sick!
छोकरा! फौसड़ पागल मैं बीमार हूं। (पानी पीता है) बीमार हूं।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: What sort of a hunter are you? You can't even sit on a hone: [To ber father) Papa, what's the matter with him? Papa! Look Papa! [Screamu] Ivan Vassilevitch! He's dead!
तुम किस तरह के शिकारी हो? तुम एक घोड़े पर बैठ भी नहीं सकते हो। (अपने पिता से) पापा, उसे क्या हो गया है? पापा! देखिए पापा (चिल्ला कर बोलती है) इवान | वसिलेविच वह तो मर गया है।

CHUBUKOV: I'm sick! I can't breathe! Air!
मैं बीमार हूं। मुझे सोस नहीं आ रही है। हवा छोड़ो

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: He's dead, [Pulls LOMOV'S sleeve) Ivan Vassilevitch!
वह मर गया है। (लोमोव को आस्तीन से खाँचती है) इवान वसिलेविच इवान वसिलेविच तुमने मुझे

Ivan Vassilevitch! What have you done to me? He's dead. [Falls into an armchair] A doctor, a doctor! {Hysterics]
क्या कर दिया है ? वह मर गया है। (एक आराम कुर्सी में गिर जाती है। कोई डाक्टर बुलाओ, डाक्टर बुलाओ। (पागलों की तरह रोने लगती है)

CHUBUKOV: Oh! What is it? What's the matter?
ओह क्या हो गया है??

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: [Wails] He's dead. ..dead !
(रोती हुई) वह मर गया है......मर गया है।

CHUBUKOV: Who's dead [Looks at LOMOV] So he is! My word! Water! A doctor! [Lifts a tumbler to LOMOV'S mouth Drink this! No. he doesn't drink. It means he's dead, and all that. I'm the most unhappy of men! Why don't I put a bullet into my brain? Why haven't I cut my throat yet? What am I waiting for? Give me a knife! Give me a pistol! [LOMOV move] He seems to be coming round. Drink some water! That's right.
कौन मर गया है ? (लोमो की तरफ देखता है) मर हो गया है। पक्की बात है। पानी डाक्टर (एकल उठाकर लोमोव के मुंह के पास लाता है। इसे पी लो नहीं, वह पी नहीं रहा है। इसका मतलब है वह मर गया है, और वगैरा बौरा। मैं सभी आदमियों से ज्यादा दुःखी हूं। मैं अपने दिमाग में एक गोली क्यों नहीं डाल लेता हूँ? मैंने अभी तक अपना गला क्यों नहीं काटा है ? मैं किस बात की प्रतीक्षा कर रहा हूँ? मुझे एक चाकू दे दो। मुझे एक पिस्तौल दे दो! (लोमोब हिलता है) वह होश में आ रहा प्रतीत हो रहा है। कुछ पानी पोलो। अब ठीक है।

LOMOV: 1 see stars mist... Where am I?
मुझे तारे दिखाई दे रहे हैं मैं कहाँ हूँ?

CHUBUKOV: Hurry up and get married and well, to the devil with you! She's willing! [He puts LOMOV'S hand into bis daughteri.] She's willing and all that. I give you my blessing and so on. Only leave me in peace!
जल्दी करो और विवाह कर लो और हो तुम्हें शैतान से जाए। वह तैयार है। (वह लोमो का हाथ पकड़ कर अपनी बेटी के हाथ में दे देता है।) वह तैयार है, और वगैरा-वगैरा मैं तुम्हें अपना आशीर्वाद देता हूं, और वगैरा वगैरा केवल मुझे चैन में छोड़ दो।

LOMOV: [Getting ap] Eh? What? To whom?
(ऊपर को उठते हुए) अह? क्या? किसे?

CHUBUKOV: She's willing! Well? Kiss and be damned to you!
यह तैयार है। ठीक है? अब चूम लो और तुम्हारा नरकवास हो।

No. Word Meanings
1 hysteries mad cries
2 exhausted tired
3 heated angry
4 evidence proof
5 wisted bent
6 heaps better much better
7 pedigree race (जाति)
8 overshot when the lower jaw is shorter than the upper (जब निचला जब ऊपर वाले से छोटा )
9 thoroughbred pure bred
10 cab carriage
11 contradiction disagreement
12 Acknowledge admit
13 implore request
14 muzzle nose and mouth of an animal
15 a whole verst much behind
16 whip cane with a string
17 Beetles insects
18 tracking following
19 pep small dog.
20 partridge a bird
21 sparks tiny glowing bits of fire
22 screams cries
23 Tumbler glass
24 mist fog

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: (Wails) He's alive.... Yes, yes, I'm willing.
(रोते हुए) वह जीवित है... हां, हो, मैं तैयार हूं।

CHUBUKOV: Kiss cach other!
एक-दूसरे को चूमो!


LOMOV:Eh Kiss whom? (They kiss) Very nice, too. Excuse me, what's it all about? Oh. now I understand.....my heart...... stars..... I'm happy. Natalya Stepanovna...... [Kines her hand] My foot's gone to sleep.
अह ? किसे चूम ? (है) बहुत बढ़िया भी क्षमा करना, यह सब किस लिए हो रहा है ? ओह, अब मुझे समझ आने लगा है....मेरा दिल तारे मैं प्रसन्न हूँ। नतल्या स्टेपानोवना (उसका हाथ चूमता है) मेरा पांव सो गया है।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: I... I'm happy too......
मैं...मैं भी प्रसन्न हूँ

CHUBUKOV: What a weight off my shoulders. Ouff
मेरे कन्धों से कितना बड़ा भार उतर गया है। उफ।

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: But, still you will admit now that Guess is worse than Squeeszr.
किन्तु फिर भी आप यह मानेंगे कि गेम्स स्क्वीजर मे घटिया है।

LOMOV: Better!
बढ़िया है!

घटिया है!

CHUBUKOV: Well, that's a way to start your family bliss! Have some champagne!
ठीक है, यह एक तरीका है तुम्हारे जीवन के आनन्द को शुरू करने का! कुछ शैम्पेन (फ्रांस में बनी शराब) ले लो!

LOMOV: He's better!
वह ज्यादा बढ़िया है!

NATALYA STEPANOVNA: Worse! Worse! Worse!
घटिया है! घटिया है! घटिया है!

CHUBUKOV: [trying to shout her down] Champagne! Champagne! CURTAIN.
( उसे खामोश करने के लिए चिल्लाते हुए) शैम्पेन ! शैम्पेन! परदा गिरता है।

Watch Exercise video on Youtube


TEXTUAL Questions:

Q1. The word ‘proposal’ has several meanings. Can you guess what sort of proposal the play is about? (i) a suggestion, plan or scheme for doing something
(ii) an offer for a possible plan or action
(iii) the act of asking someone’s hand in marriage
Ans. (iii) the act of asking someone's hand in marriage

Q2. Do you know anything about a Russian marriage ceremony? Read this article about a Russian wedding.

... ... ... ... ... ...
A. Preparations for a Russian Wedding: A Russian wedding is very simple. The planning only includes arranging for rings, brides’ dress, cars, and a reception. Earlier, the bride’s family paid for the reception, but now-a-days brides’ and grooms’ families usually share expenses. A Russian wedding lasts for two days; some weddings last as long as a week, and the occasion becomes something to remember for years. The necessary part of the wedding ceremony is a wedding procession of several cars. The best friends of the groom/ bride meet before the wedding a few times, make posters, write speeches and organise contests. When the groom arrives to fetch the bride for the registration, he has to fight to get her! Russians usually live in apartments in tall buildings, and the groom has to climb several stairs to reach his bride. But at each landing he must answer a Question to be allowed to go up. The bride’s friends ask difficult Questions (sometimes about the bride, sometimes just difficult riddles), and the groom must answer with the help of his friends. For example, he may be shown a few photos of baby girls and he must say which one his bride is. If he guesses wrong, he must pay cash to move ahead. After the marriage registration, the newly-married couple leaves the guests for a tour of the city sights. After two or three hours of the city tour the couple arrives at the reception. The couple sits at a specially arranged table with their family, friends and invited guests. The reception starts with toasts to the couple. A wedding toast is a custom where a close friend or relative of the groom or the bride says a few words to wish the couple, then everyone raises their glass of wine, and drink it up at the same moment. The groom is then asked to kiss the bride. After a few toasts, people start eating and drinking, and generally have fun. After some time, the bride gets ‘stolen’! She disappears, and when the groom starts looking for her, he is asked to pay a fee. Usually it is his friends who ‘steal’ the bride. Then there are the bride’s friends — they steal the bride’s shoe. The groom must pay money for the shoe too. The guests enjoy watching these tussles, and continue partying.

Q3. Do you think Indian and Russian weddings have any customs in common? With the help of a partner, fill in the table below.
A. Indian and Russian weddings have many customs in common. The information showing it is given as:
Wedding Ceremonies in Russia and India:
Customs different from Indian ones:
1. wedding procession
2. groom coming to bride's house
3. honeymoon
4. reception
5. 'stealing' of the shoe
6. grooms' paying
7. 'stealing' of the bride
Customs different from Indian ones
1. making posters, writing speeches, organising contests
2. fight involving this
3. climbing stairs and answering Questions, etc.
4. city tour
5. ceremonial toasting
6. kissing the bride

Thinking about the Play:

Q1. What does Chubukov at first suspect that Lomov has come for? Is he sincere when he later says "And I've always loved you, my angel, as if you were my own son"? Find reasons for your answer from the play.
Ans. When Lomoy tells Chubukov that he has come to make a special request, Chubukov at first suspects that Lomov has come to borrow money. Chubukov is not sincere in using terms of endearment for Lomov. After some time, Chubukov starts quarrelling with Lomov ovet petty matters. In fact, he sides with his daughter in quarrelling with Lomov. He even abuses Lomov. This shows his insincerity in saying this flattering sentence.

2. Chubukov says of Natalya: "... as if she won't consent! She's in love; egad, she's like a lovesick cat... Would you agree? Find reasons for your answer.
Ans. Yes, Natalya is in love. This becomes clear when she starts weeping on knowing that Lomov came to propose to her. She asks her father to bring him back at once. She becomes hysteric.

3. (i) Find all the words and expressions in the play that the characters use to speak about each other, and the accusations and insults they hurl at each other. (For example, Lomov in the end calls Chubukov an intriguer; but earlier, Chubukov has himself called Lomov a "malicious, doublefaced intriguer." Again, Lomov begins by describing Natalya as "an excellent housekeeper, not bad-looking, well-educated.")
Answer: Natalya calls Lomov 'rascal', 'The monster',
Chubukov calls him The villain! The scarecrow!' 'that blind hen', 'turnip-ghost', 'The stuffed susage. The
wiren-faced frump', 'malicious, double. faced intriguer etc.
Chubukov calls Lomov's father as 'a guzzling gambler.
Limay calls Chubukov 'Intriguer", Natalya's mother as hump-backed', "backbiters". etc.
Chubukoy calls Lomov as "my precious”
Lomov calls Natalya as an excellent housekeeper, not bad-looking well-educated.

(ii) Then think of five adjectives or adjectival expressions of your own to describe each character
Answer: Lomov: showy, weak-hearted, diffident, stupid, idiotic, quarrelsome, etc.
Natalya: quarrelsome, nagging, foolish, unwise, immature etc.
Chubukov: mean, low-minded, abusive, quarrelsome, insensible

(iii) Can you now imagine what these characters will quarrel about next?
Answer: Next, they will fight about the arrangements to be made for marriage.

Thinking about Language:

1.1. This play has been translated into English from the Russian original Are there any expressions or ways of speaking that strike you as more Russian than English? For example, would an adult man be addressed by an older man as my darling or my treasure in an English play? Read through the play carefully, and find expressions that you think are not used in contemporary English, and contrast these with idiomatic modern English expressions that also occur in the play.
A: 1.The following expressions or ways of speaking strike as more Russian than English:
Like a lovesick cat, honoured Natalya Stepanovna, pettifogger, malicious, doublefaced intriguer rascal, The villain! The scarecrow! The stuffed sausage! The wizen-faced frump! Pup! And you' under the slipper of your house-keeper!
She's willing, kiss and be damned to you.
These insulting words and phrases used in the play are not used in contemporary English. These expressions are contrasted with the ones like: 'villain', "buffoon', 'ostrich', 'pig', 'swine', 'fool', 'dog, 'devil', 'scoundrel', 'bitch', etc.

2. Look up the following words in a dictionary and find out how to pronounce them. Pay attention to how many syllables there are in each word, and find out which syllable is stressed or said more forcefully:
Palpitations- P@lpiteOonz/ (4 syllables) ('t is stressed and said more forcefully.)
Pedigree- pedigri: / (2 syllables) (2 syllable) ('p-do-)
malicious- m{liÔ(s/ (2 syllables) (2 syllables) (1-do-)
Accustomed- (k'st (md/ (4 syllables) (k is stressed and said more forcefully.)
Interfere- Int('fi((r)/ (3 syllables) (f-do)
principle-- prins [pl/ (2 syllables) ('po-do)
embezzlement- mbezim nt/ (3 syllables) (b-do-)
temporary- tempr{ri/ (3 syllables) (t-do-)
implore- im'plO:(t)/ (2 syllables) ('p-do-)
evidence- l'evid (ns/ (2 syllables) ('e-do-)
architect- 'a:kitekt/ (2 syllables) ('a-do-)
behaviour- biheivj ((r) (2 syllables) ('h-do-)
thoroughbred- Tr[bred/ (2 syllables) (--do)
misfortune- mis'fo: tou:n/ (3 syllables) (-do)
neighbours- 'neib ((r) %/ (2 syllables) ('n-do-)
documents- 'df kjum (nt/ (2 syllables) ('d-do-)

3. Look up the following phrases in a dictionary to find out their meaning, and then use each in a sentence of your own.
(i) You may take it that
Answer: You may take it that - You may understand that. You may take it that I cannot tolerate your impudent behaviour.

(ii) He seems to be coming round
Answer: He seems to be coming round-He seems to be understanding Previously he always opposed me. But now he seems to be coming round what I said.

(iii) My foot's gone to sleep.
Answer: My foot has become numb.
I have been squatting for long time. My foot has gone to sleep.

II Reported Speech

A sentence in reported speech consists of two parts: a reporting clause, which contains the reporting verb, and the reported clause. Look at the following sentences.
(a) "I went to visit my grandma last week," said Mamta.
Mamts said that she had gone to visit her grandma the previous week.
In sentence (a), we have Mamta's exact words. This is an example of direct speech sentence.
(b) someone is reporting what Mamta said. This is called indirect speech or reported speech. A sentence in reported speech is made up of two parts-a reporting clause and a reported clause.
In sentence (b). Mamta said is the reporting clause containing the reporting verb said. The other clause that she had gone to visit her grandma last week-is the reported clause.
Notice that in sentence (b) we put the reporting clause first. This is done to show that we are not speaking directly, but reporting someone else's words. The tense of the verb also changes; past tense (went) becomes past perfect (had gone).

Here are some pairs of sentences in direct and reported speech. Read them carefully, and do the task that follows:
1. (i) LOMOV: Honoured Stepan Stepanovitch, do you think I may count on her consent? (Direct Speech)

(ii) Lomov asked Stepan Stepanovitch respectfully if he thought he might count on her consent.

2. (i) LOMOV: I'm getting a noise in my ears from excitement. (Direct Speech)
(ii) LOMOV said that he was getting a noise in his cars from excitement. (Reported Speech)

3. (i) NATALYA: Why haven't you been here for such a long time? (Direct Speech)
(ii)(ii) Natalya Stepanovna asked why he hadn't been there for such a long time. (Reported speech)

4. (i) CHUBUKOV: What's the matter? (Direct Speech)
(ii) Chubukov asked him what the matter was. (Reported Speech)

5. (i) NATALYA: My mowers will be there this very day! (Direct Speech)
(ii) Natalya Stepanovna declared that her mowers would be there that very day. (Reported Speech)

You must have noticed that when we report someone's exact words, we have to make some changes in the sentence structure. In the following sentences fill in the blanks to list the changes that have occurred in the above pairs of sentences. One has been done for you.

1. To report a Question, we use the reporting verb asked (as in Sentence Set I).
2. To report a statement, we use the reporting verb
Answer: declared

3. The adverb of place here changes to
Answer: there

4. When the verb in direct speech is in the present tense, the verb in reported speech is in the tense (as in Sentence Set 3).
Answer: past

5. If the verb in direct speech is in the present continuous tense, the verb in reported speech changes to tense. For example, changes to was getting.
Answer: past continuous is getting

6. When the sentence in direct speech contains a word denoting respect, we add the adverb ….. in the reporting clause (as in Sentence Set 1).
Answer: respectfully

7. The pronouns I, me, our and mine, which are used in the first person in direct speech, change to second person pronouns such as ……., ………., ……. Or …….. in reported speech.
Answer: he, him, their or his

III. Here is an excerpt from an article from the Times of India dated 27 August 2006. Rewrite it changing the sentences in direct speech into reported speech. Leave the unchanged.
"Why do you want to know my age? If people know I am so old, I won't get work!" laughs 90-year-old A.K. Hangal, one of Hindi cinema's most famous character actors. For his age, he is rather energetic. "What's the secret?" we ask "My intake of everything is in small quantities. And I walk a lot", he replies "I joined the industry when people retire. I was in my 40s. So, I don't miss being called a star I am still respected and given work, when actors of my age are living in poverty and without work. I don't have any complaints," he says, adding, "but yes, I have always been underpaid" Recipient of the Padma Bhushan Hangal never hankered after money or materialistic gains. "No doubt I am content today, but money is important. I was a fool not to understand the value of money earlier," he regrets.
90-year-old A.K Hangal, one of Hindi cinema's most famous character actors laughs asking the interviewer why he wants to know his age, adding that if people know he is so old, he won't get work. For his age, he is rather energetic. They ask him what the secret is. He replies that his intake of everything is in small quantities and he walks a lot. He further states that he joined the industry when people retire. He was in his 40s. So, he doesn't miss being called a star. He is still respected and given work when actors of his age are living in poverty and without work. He doesn't have any complaints, he says, adding that he has always been underpaid. Recipient of The Padma Bhushan. Hangal never hankered after money or materialistic gains. He regrets that no doubt he is content today but money is important. He was a fool not to understand the value of money earlier.

Speaking and Writing

1. Anger Management: As adults, one important thing to learn is how to manage our temper:
Some of us tend to get angry quickly, while others remain calm.
Can you think of three ill effects that result from anger? Note them down. Suggest ways to avoid losing your temper in such situations. Are there any benefits from anger?

There are many ill effects of anger. Some of them are as follows:
(a) Anger increases blood pressure.
(b) It accelerates the heartbeat.
(c) It causes harm to the body.
(d) Sometimes, out of anger one may commit a deed for which he repents later.

In order to control our anger, we must speak as little as possible in a conversation. We must listen to the other fellow and let him speak. You must say to yourself, "most of what he says is nonsense." You should think that the other fellow wants to harm you by making you angry. You should not allow him to make you a victim. Moreover, anger leads to anger. If you remain calm the other fellow will also become calm after some time.

3. In groups, discuss the qualities one should look for in a marriage partner. You might consider the following points.
Personal qualities
Appearance or looks
Attitudes and beliefs
Sense of humour
Value system
Compassion and kindness
Tolerance, ambition
Attitude to money and wealth
Education and professional background

Personal qualities: (i) The marriage partner should be good looking. But inner qualities are more important outer looks
(ii) His or her attitudes and beliefs should be healthy and constructive.
(iii) He or she must have a healthy sense of humour.
(b) Value System:
(i) The partner must be kind towards all. There should be no streak of cruelty in him or her.
(ii) The marriage partner must have tolerance and an ambition to rise high in life.
(iii) The marriage partner should have a balanced attitude towards money. He or she should neither be stingy or a spendthrift.
(c) Education and professional background s
The marriage partner must have good educational or professional qualifications.

4. Are there parts of the play that remind you of film scenes from romantic comedies? Discuss this la groups, and recount to the rest of the class episodes similar to those in the play.
Answer: For discussion in groups and at class level. The student may consider romantic comic films like 'Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi, Padosan', 'Shriman 420 'Hera Pheri", "Hangama', etc.

Comprehension Passages:

Passage 1:

It's cold! Natalya Stepanovna is an excellent housekeeper, not bad-looking, well-educated. What mos de I want? But I'm getting a noise in my cars from excitement. [Drinks] And It's impossible for me not to marry. In the first place, I'm already 35-a critical age, so to speak. In the second place, 1 ought to lead a quist and regular life. I suffer from palpitations, I'm excitable and always getting awfully upset; at this very moment my lips are trembling, and there's a twitch in my right eyebrow. But the very worst of all is the way I sleep I no soomer get into bed and begin to go off, when suddenly something in my left side gives a pull, and can feel it in my shoulder and head... I jump up like a lunatic, walk about a bit and lie down again, but as soon is begin to get off to sleep there's another pull! And this may happen twenty times.....

Q1. Who is the speaker of these lines?
A: Lomow is the speaker of these lines.
Q2. Why is he eager to marry?
A: He is eager to marry because he is already 35
Q3. What does the speaker think of Natalya ?
A: He thinks that she is a good housekeeper
Q4. What disease does he suffer from?
A: He suffers from palpitations
Q5. Find a word from the passage which means "mad".
A: 'lunatic'

Passage 2:

But you can see from the documents honoured Natalya Stepanovna. Oxen Meadows, it's true, were once the subject of dispute, but now everybody knows that they are mine. There's nothing to argue about. You see my aunt's grandmother gave the free use of these Meadows in perpetuity to the peasants of your father's grandfather, in return for which they were to make bricks for her. The peasants belonging to your father's grandfather had the free use of the Meadows for forty years, and had got into the habit of regarding them as their own, when it happened that ...........

Q1 What documents does Lomov offer to show Natalya?
A: He wants to show her the documents relating to the Oxen Meadows.
Q2 For how many years did the peasants have the free use of the Meadows?
A: The peasants had the free use of the Meadows for forty years.
Q3 What for did Lomov's aunt's grandmother give the Oxen Meadows to Natalya's father'
A: He gave the Meadows in lieu of their making bricks for Lomov's aunt's grandmother.
Q4 Name the chapter.
A: The name of the chapter is 'The Proposal'.
Q5 Which word in the passage means 'in continuation'?
A: Perpetuity.

Passage 3:

CHUBUKOV: Dear one, why yell like that? You won't prove anything just by yelling. I don't want anything of yours, and don't intend to give up what I have. Why should 1? And you know, my beloved, that if you propose to go on arguing about it, I'd much sooner give up the Meadows to the peasants than to you. There!
LOMOV: I don't understand! How have you the right to give away somebody else's property?
CHUBUKOV: You may take it that I know whether I have the right or not. Because, young man, I'm not used to being spoken to in that tone of voice, and so on. 1, young man, am twice your age, and ask you to speak to me without agitating yourself, and all that.
LOMOV: No, you just think I'm a fool and want to have me on! You call my land yours, and then you want me to talk to you calmly and politely! Good neighbours don't behave like that, Stepan Stepanovitch! You're not a neighbour, you're a grabber!

Q1 What is Lomov yelling for?
A: Lomov is yelling to make it clear that Oxen Meadows are his
Q2 What does Chubukov threaten to do?
A: He threatens to give the Meadows to the peasants.
Q3 According to Chubukov, how should Lomov speak to him?
A: Lomov should speak to him respectfully because he is twice his age.
Q4 What does Lomov call Chubukov?
A: He calls Chubukov a landgrabber.
Q5 Find a word from the passage which means 'shouting'.
A: 'Yelling.'

Passage 4:

LOMOV: He is old, but I wouldn't take five Squeezers for him. Why, how can you? Guess is a dog; as for Squeezer, well, it's too funny to argue. Anybody you like has a dog as good as Squeezer... you may find them under every bush almost. Twenty-five roubles would be a handsome price to pay for him.
NATALYA: There's some demon of contradiction in you today, Ivan Vassilevitch. First you pretend that the Meadows are now, that Guess is better than Squeezer. I don't like people who don't say what they mean, because you know perfectly well that Squeezer is a hundred times better than your silly Guess. Why do you want to say he isn't?
LOMOV: I see, Natalya Stepanovna, that you consider me either blind or a fool. You must realise that Squeezer is overshot!

Q1 What is funny, according to Lomov?
A: According to Lomov it is funny to say that Squeezer is better than Guess.
Q2 What does Natalya say about her own dog?
A: She says that her dog is hundred times better than Lomov's dog.
Q3 Where can you find dogs like Squeezer, according to Lomov?
A: According to him you can find dogs like Squeezer under every bush.
Q4 How does Lomov interpret Natalya's accusation of him?
A: He thinks that she considers him either blind or a fool.
Q5 Which Russian currency has been mentioned in these lines?
A: Roubles.

Question And Answers

Q.1. Why is Chubukov surprised at Lomov's wearing of a formal evening dress when Lomov comes to meet him?
Ans. Lomov intends to propose to Chubukov's daughter for marriage. That is why he comes to Chubukov' house in a formal evening dress. Chubukov does not know the purpose of Lomov's visit. That is why he is surprised to see Lomov in that dress.

Q.2. Why does Chubukov suspect Lomov when he comes to his house?
Ans. Lomov had borrowed money from Chubukov once or twice already. So Chubukov suspects that Lomov has again come to borrow money from him. That is why he says to himself, "He has come to borrow money. Shan't give him any!

Q.3. Relate briefly the first quarrel between Lomov and Natalya.
Describe Lomov's first meeting with Natalya.

Ans. Lomov comes to Natalya's house to propose to her. While talking to her, he says that his Oxen Meadows touch Natalya's Birchwoods. At this Natalya says angrily, "Oxen Meadows are not yours; they are ours." The argument turns so hot that Lomov becomes nervous. He staggers out of the house.

Q.4. How do Lomov and Chubukov abuse each other during their quarrel over the Oxen Meadows?
Ans. Chubukov calls Lomov a pettifogger. He calls Lomov's grandfather a drunkard, and his father a gambler. Lomov says that Chubukov's grandfather was tried for embezzlement. He says that Chubukov's mother was hump-backed. Chubukov says, "You Lomovs had lunacy in your family, all of you."

Q.5. Why does Chubukov curse himself for being the father of a grown-up girl?
Ans. Lomov leaves Chubukov's house after a quarrel. Now Chubukov tells his daughter Natalya that Lomov had come to propose to her. On hearing this, Natalya begins to cry. She says that she has lost the opportunity of getting married. Now Chubukov curses himself for being the father of a grown-up girl.

Q.6. Why has Chubukov to go to Lomov's house to call him back?
Why does Chubukov call Lomov back home? Why does Natalya accuse her father?

Ans. After Lomov has gone, Chubukov tells Natalya that Lomov had come to propose to her. On hearing this, Natalya begins to cry. She says that she has lost the opportunity of getting married. She compels her father to go and bring Lomov back.

Q.7. How is the quarrel about the Oxen Meadows settled at last?
Ans. Natalya forces her father to go and bring Lomov back. When Lomov comes, Natalya says to him, "Forgive us, Ivan, we were all a little heated. I remember now: Oxen Meadows are really yours." Thus, the quarrel is at last settled, but a fresh one begins soon.

Q.8. What is the point of the second quarrel berween Lomov and Natalya?
Ans. Lomov has a pet dog named Guess. Natalya has a dog named Squeezer, Lomov calls his dog a first-rate dog. Natalya says that Squeezer is heaps better than Guess. Each starts finding fault with the other's dog. The quarrel grows so bitter that Lomov faints and falls into an armchair.

Q.9. What does Natalya say about Guess?
Ans. Guess is Lomov's pet dog. Natalya says that her Squeezer is better than Guess. She calls Guess old and ugly. She says that Guess is a worthless dog and should be shor dead.

Q.10. How is the proposal finally made or not made?
Ans. When Lomov faints, Natalya begins to cry. She thinks that Lomov is dead. At once Chubukov puts Natalya's hand into Lomov's hand. He says, "Hurry up and get married. She is willing" Natalya says, "Yes, yes, I am willing. Thus, the proposal is accepted without being made.

Q.11. Describe the first meeting of Lomov and Natalya.
Ans. Lomov goes to his neighbour Chubukov's house to ask for the hand of his daughter Natalya. When he talks to Natalya, he becomes nervous. He is in a fix how to make the marriage proposal. He talks in a round-about manner. He beats about the bush. He makes a mention of his meadows which touch their birchwoods. At this a quarrel ensues between them over the ownership of the meadows. Both of them claim the ownership and start rebuking each other. In the meantime, Chubukov comes there. Instead of pacifying them, he also joins the quarrel. He abuses Lomov which worsens the situation. Lomov is deeply upset. He leaves Chubukov's house and forgets about the marriage proposal.

Q.12. Give a detailed description of the second quarrel in the play, 'The Proposal.
Ans. This time, the quarrel turns over their pet dogs. Natalya has a pet dog named Squeezer. Lomov's dog is named Guess. Each claims their dog to be far superior to the other's. Lomov says that he had paid 125 roubles for his dog. Natalya calls it too big a price for a dog like Guess. But Lomov calls his dog a first-rate dog. At this Natalya retorts, "Squeezer is heaps better than Guess!" The argument turns very bitter. Each starts finding fault with the other's dog. Just then Chubukov comes in. He, too, joins in the quarrel. He calls Squeezer the best dog in the district. Lomov and Chubukov start abusing each other. Lomov calls Chubukov an old rat. Chubukov says to him, “Shut up or I'll shoot you like a partridge!" Their quarrel ends only when Lomov faints and falls into an armchair.

Q.13. Describe the first quarrel between Lomov and Natalya in your own words.
Describe the first meeting of Lomov and Natalya.

Ans. Lomov and Chubukov are neighbours. Lomov comes to Chubukov's house to propose to his daughter, Natalya. Instead of coming to the point, he starts talking irrelevantly. For example, he says that he inherited his land from his late aunt. Then he says that his Oxen Meadows touch Natalya's Birchwoods. At this, Natalya at once says, "Oxen Meadows are not yours; they are ours." A hot argument starts between the two. While Lomov and Natalya are thus arguing, Chubukov comes in. He, too, joins in the argument. Lomov threatens that he will take the matter to court. Very soon, they start abusing each other. The quarrel becomes so bitter that Lomov begins to feel very nervous. He staggers out of Chubukov's house.

Q.14 On what issues did Lomov and Natalya quarrel? What does their quarrel reveal about them?
A: There are two controversies between Natalya and Lomov. First is about the Oxen Meadows and the other is about the dogs namely Guess and Squeezer.
Lomov fought with Natalya for a piece of land. Both of them wanted to have a claim for the same piece of land, i.e., Oxen Meadows.
The second time they fought for their dogs to establish the superiority of one over the other. Lomov states that his dog has become lame since its leg has been bitten by some other dog. Natalya points out that her dog Squeezer is better than Guess. She says that Guess is old, ugly and a wornout cab horse.

Q.15 Justify, in brief, the title of the play "The Proposal".
A: The title of the play ‘The Proposal’ is very appropriate. A young man, Lomov wants to propose Natalya for marriage. He goes to her house for the same. Being confused, he doesn’t propose at once. He beats about the bush. He speaks irrelevantly. As Natalya doesn’t know that he has come to propose her, she thinks that he has come to claim oxen meadows as his own, she starts quarrelling. This results in one after another quarrel. After her father Chubukov reconciles; Natalya comes to know that he has come to propose her. Then at once she forgets the issue of fighting. Then the proposal is made and accepted. Finally, they get engaged. Thus, the title is apt.

Q.16 Give a character sketch of Lomov.
Write few lines on Lomov.

Watch video on Character Sketch of Lomov:

Central Figure: He is physically weak but financially sound. At the age of 35 which is critical, he is still unmarried. He is anxious to get married. So, the story of his proposal moves around him. He is foolish kind of person though he thinks himself to be wise.
Comic: He wants to marry his neighbour Natalya but he is not really in love with her. He is suffering from palpitation. When he comes to talk, he becomes nervous. He gets diverted while proposing Natalya’s hand for marriage. Rather he quarrels over trifles like meadows, dogs. And even abuses Natalya and her father Chubukov.
Argumentative: Though when talks he becomes nervous, he is short-tempered, but represents his case before father and daughter duo very well with his arguments. He offers to show papers, he talks about his logic, and finally threatens both to take the matter to court. Till last, he proves himself right on the ownership of Meadows.

Q.17 What type of person is Natalaya?
Give two examples to show her quarrelsome nature.
Write a character sketch of Natalya.

Watch video on Character Sketch of Natalya:

1.Young Lady: She is 25 years old daughter of Chubukov. She is well educated girl. She is love-sick cat as her father talks about her, thirsting for love. She can serve as a good housewife. She is full of diverse personality.
2. Hypocritical: She is a person who acts in contradiction to her stated feelings about Lomov. Firstly, she greets Lomov with warmth. She allows him to smoke at her home. She even compliments on his appearance. But when talks are on ownership of meadows, she abruptly interrupts and contradicts him, quarrels with Lomov. But when she comes to know that he was here to propose marriage, she is infuriated, blaming her father for causing the neighbour to depart, she immediately softens her stands and asks her father to call back Lomov. Even agrees on meadows to be Lomov’s.
3. Immature Attitude: Only daughter of landowner, she is possessive about her land and was very determined not to part with it. She is short tempered lady who used to quarrel with anyone very often. She always pinpoints the amount of help; she had offered to her neighbours. Though well educated, she did not use her education wisely and thoughtfully.
4. Quarrelsome: She is a conservative personality. She has class attitude in her. She proves to be a lady who has kindred obsession of property ownership. She is abusive by nature.
5. Ideal in Lomov's Eyes: She is excellent house keeper. To him she is good looking, and well educated. Lomov thinks what else he can expect from a girl. She possesses everything. Lomov considers her fit for him.

Multiple Choice Questions

QUESTION- 1 Who is the writer of the play 'The Proposal'?
(A) Robert Frost
(B) Anton Chekov
(C) Carolyn Wells
(D) Robin Klein

QUESTION- 2 The play is set in which country?
(A) India
(B) France
(C) Russia
(D) Japan

QUESTION- 3 How are the Lomovs and Chubukovs related?
(A) friends
(B) cousins
(C) neighbours
(D) business associates

QUESTION- 4 What had Natalya been doing when Lomov called for her?
(A) cleaning the house
(B) washing clothes
(C) shelling peas
(D) cooking food

QUESTION- 5 What did Natalya offer Lomov?
(A) tea
(B) brakfast
(C) coffee
(D) lunch

QUESTION- 6 What request did Chubukov think Lomov would make?
(A) ask for her daughter's hand in marriage
(B) borrow money
(C) borrow land
(D) all of the above

QUESTION- 7 Why was Lomov wearing his evening dress?
(A) to pay New Year Eve's visit
(B) ask for his daughter's hand in marriage
(C) borrow money
(D) borrow land

QUESTION- 8 Who does Chubukov call a 'lovesick cat'?
(A) Lomov
(B) himself
(C) his maid
(D) Natalya

QUESTION- 9 'And it's impossible for me not to marry'. Why does he say so?
(A) He's 35 already
(B) He suffer from palpitations
(C) He has troubled sleep
(D) All of the above

QUESTION- 10 Where do Lomov and Natalya get on the wrong foot?
(A) While talking about the weather
(B) While talking about their land
(C) While talking about their family relations
(D) While the proposal

QUESTION- 11 Which land were they fighting about?
(A) Oxen Meadows
(B) Birchwoods
(C) Burnt Marsh
(D) All of the above

QUESTION- 12 How much are the meadows worth?
(A) 100 roubles
(B) 200 roubles
(C) 300 roubles
(D) 500 roubles

QUESTION- 13 Who gave the meadows to Natalya's father?
(A) Aunt's grandmother of Lomov
(B) Aunt's grandfather of Lomov
(C) Aunt's sister of Lomov
(D) Aunt's brother of Lomov

QUESTION- 14 What is Lomov's side of justification about the land?
(A) their land extended till Burnt Marsh
(B) his grandmother always talked about it
(C) his grandmother gave it to her great grandfather's peasants
(D) both 1 and 2

QUESTION- 15 Why was Natalya arguing about the land?
(A) she can't stand unfairness
(B) it was worth a lot
(C) she was jealous of Lomov
(D) All of the above

QUESTION- 16 What explanation did Lomov give for his shouting?
(A) his frustration
(B) his short temper
(C) his palpitations
(D) he can't stand unfairness

QUESTION- 17 What did Chubukov had to say about the land?
(A) they were his
(B) They were Lomov's
(C) they were still disputed
(D) they belong to none of them

QUESTION- 18 Who threatened to take the matter to court?
(A) Natalya
(B) Lomov
(C) Chubukov
(D) None

QUESTION- 19 What happens to Lomov when he is in an excited state?
(A) He started running
(B) His heart beat increases.
(C) His brain started working
(D) None of the Above

QUESTION- 20 Who is squeezed between Lomov and Natalya emotionally?
(A) Natalya's father
(B) Natalya's mother
(C) Natalya's brother
(D) Natalya's aunt

QUESTION- 21 How did Natalya react when her father told Lomov was here to propose her?
(A) she gets angry
(B) she sends her father to get him
(C) she's amazed
(D) both 2 and 3

QUESTION- 22 Why did Chubukov think it was a curse to be a father of a grown-up daughter?
(A) he had to go to call the man they had just shun out
(B) he had to go to call the man who insulted them
(C) he had to go call the man who shouted at them
(D) All of the above

QUESTION- 23 Who is squeezed between Lomov and Natalya emotionally?
(A) Natalya's father
(B) Natalya's mother
(C) Natalya's brother
(D) Natalya's aunt

QUESTION- 24 What was the topic of the second arguement?
(A) the land
(B) the proposal
(C) the dogs
(D) none

QUESTION- 25 What do they argue about after holding each other's hands?
(A) dogs
(B) land
(C) marriage venue
(D) the cuisine

QUESTION- 26 What is the name of Lomov's dog?
(A) Guess
(B) Guard
(C) Squeezer
(D) Sweater

Q UESTION- 27- According to Lomov what amount would be good enough for buying squeezer?
(A) 60 Roubles
(B) 35 Roubles
(C) 25 Roubles
(D) 40 Roubles

QUESTION- 28 According to Lomov what defect does squeezer have?
(A) lame
(B) old age
(C) overshot
(D) fat

QUESTION- 29 What defect does guess have?
(A) lame
(B) old age
(C) short in the muzzle
(D) all of them

QUESTION- 30 What defect does guess have?
(A) lame
(B) old age
(C) short in the muzzle
(D) all of them

QUESTION- 31 When does Natalya accept the proposal?
(A) when Lomov went unconscious
(B) when they finished arguing
(C) when he proposed her
(D) when Lomov came back in

Tally Answers:
1B 2C 3C 4C 5D 6B
7B 8D 9D 10B 11A 12C
13A 14C 15A 16C 17A 18B
19A 20A 21D 22D 23A 24C
25A 26A 27C 28C 29D 30D 31A

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