The Shehnai of Bismillah Khan शहनाई की उत्पत्ति पर प्रकाश डालती है और शहनाई वादक, पद्म विभूषण के
प्राप्तकर्ता और शहनाई के संगीत की दुनिया में उनके अमूल्य योगदान के लिए भारत रतन पुरस्कार। संगीतकारों के
परिवार से खुश होकर, बिस्मिल्लाह खान ने शहनाई को शास्त्रीय संगीत वाद्ययंत्रों के बीच स्थान दिया। कई नए
रागों की उनकी छाप और उनकी मौलिकता ने उन्हें अंतर्राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर भी प्रशंसा दिलाई।
पुंगी, एक संगीत वाद्ययंत्र है, जिसे मुगल सम्राट औरंगजेब ने प्रतिबंधित कर दिया था, क्योंकि उसे इसकी आवाज़ सुरीली और तीखी लगती थी। हालांकि, इसे पुनर्जीवित किया गया था जब एक नाई, जो पेशेवर संगीतकारों के परिवार से संबंधित था, ने इसे संशोधित और परिपूर्ण किया। उन्होंने एक खोखला तना लिया जो पुंगी से अधिक चौड़ा था, उसमें सात छेद किए और ऐसा संगीत तैयार किया जो नरम और मधुर था। नाई (नाइ) ने इसे शाही कक्षों (शाह के दरबार में) में बजाया और वाद्ययंत्र का नाम शहनाई रखा गया। इसकी ध्वनि इतनी सराहनीय थी कि इसे नौबत का हिस्सा बना दिया गया – शाही दरबार में पाए जाने वाले नौ वाद्ययंत्रों का पारंपरिक पहनावा। उसी समय से, शहनाई का संगीत शुभ अवसरों के साथ जोड़ा जाने लगा। यह मंदिरों में और शादियों के दौरान, विशेष रूप से उत्तर भारत में उस्ताद बिस्मिल्लाह खान द्वारा शास्त्रीय मंच पर वाद्ययंत्र बजाने के दौरान बजाया जाता था।
1916 में बिहार के डुमरांव में जन्मे बिस्मिल्लाह खान संगीतकारों के एक प्रसिद्ध परिवार से ताल्लुक रखते थे। उनके दादा, रसूल बक्स खान भोजपुर के राजा के दरबार में शहनाई वादक थे। उनके पिता, पैगम्बर बक्स और उनके पैतृक और मामा भी महान शहनाई वादक थे। बिस्मिल्ला खान ने जीवन में संगीत की शुरुआत की जब वह अपने मामा की कंपनी में 3 साल के थे। पाँच वर्ष की आयु में, वे नियमित रूप से पास के बिहारी मंदिर में भोजपुरी चैता गाने के लिए जाते थे, जिसके अंत में उन्हें महाराजा द्वारा एक बड़ा लड्डू दिया जाता था।
बिस्मिल्ला खान ने बनारस में अपने मामा अली बक्स से प्रशिक्षण प्राप्त किया, जिन्होंने विष्णु मंदिर में शहनाई बजाई थी। उनकी प्रतिभा को तब पहचान मिली जब इलाहाबाद संगीत सम्मेलन में बिस्मिल्लाह खान चौदह वर्ष के थे। बाद में, जब ऑल इंडिया रेडियो की स्थापना हुई
EMPEROR Aurangzeb banned (prohibited) the playing
of a musical instrument called pungi (predecessor of
Shehnai) in the royal residence for it had a shrill (very Sharp) unpleasant (that you dislike) sound.
Pungi became the generic name (generic name: a name
given to a class or group as a whole) for reeded
(wind instruments which have reeds like the flute, the clarinet,etc.)
Few had thought that it would one day be revived (brought back to live).
A barber of a family of professional musicians, who had access to the royal palace, decided to improve
the tonal quality(sound)
of the pungi. He chose a pipe with a natural hollow (empty from inside) stem that was longer and broader than the pungi, and made seven holes on the body of the pipe. When he played on it, closing and opening some of these holes, soft and melodious sounds were produced. He played the instrument before royalty and everyone was impressed. The instrument so different from the pungi had to be given a new name. As the story goes, since it was first played in the Shah’s chambers and was played by a nai (barber), the instrument was named the ‘shehnai.
2. The sound of the shehnai began to be considered auspicious (promising to bring good fortune).
And for this reason, it is still played in temples and is an indispensable (without which a piece of
work cannot be done) component of any North Indian wedding. In the past, the shehnai was part of
naubat or traditional ensemble (Group of things)
of nine instruments found at royal courts. Till
recently it was used only in temples and weddings. The credit for bringing this instrument onto the
classical stage goe0s to Ustaad Bismillah Khan.
3. As a five-year old, Bismillah Khan played gilli danda near a pond in the ancient estate of Dumraon in Bihar. He would regularly go to the nearby Bihariji temple to sing the Bhojpuri ‘Chaita’, at the end of which he would earn a big laddu (Laddu or laddoo are sphere-shaped sweets originated in the Indian subcontinent.) weighing 1.25 kg, a prize given by the local Maharaja. This happened 80 years ago, and the little boy has travelled far to earn the highest civilian award in India — the Bharat Ratna.
4. Born on 21 March 1916, Bismillah belongs to a well-known family of musicians from Bihar. His grandfather, Rasool Bux Khan, was the shehnai-nawaz of the Bhojpur king’s court. His father, Paigambar Bux, and other paternal ancestors’ lineage (ancestors of the father) were also great shehnai players.
5. The young boy took to music early in life. At the age of three when his mother took him to his
maternal uncle’s house in Benaras (now Varanasi),
Bismillah was fascinated watching his uncles practice
the shehnai. Soon Bismillah started accompanying his uncle, Ali Bux, to the Vishnu temple of Benaras
where Bux was employed to play the shehnai. Ali Bux would play the shehnai and Bismillah would sit
captivated (attracted)for hours on end. (for a very long time without
stopping, continuously) Slowly, he
started getting lessons in playing the instrument and would sit practicing throughout the day. For years
to come the temple of Balaji and Mangala Maiya and the banks of the Ganga became the young apprentice’s
(Trainee) favourite haunts (place you like come, where you like to visit many times a day)
where he could practice in solitude (solitude: being
alone, single). The flowing waters of the Ganga
inspired him to improvise and invent ragas that were earlier considered to be beyond the range of the
6. At the age of 14, Bismillah accompanied his uncle to the Allahabad Music Conference. At the end of his recital, (a performance of a programme of music by a soloist or small group.) Ustaad Faiyaz Khan patted the young boy’s back and said, “Work hard and you shall make it.” With the opening of the All India Radio in Lucknow in 1938 came Bismillah’s big break. He soon became an often-heard shehnai player on radio.
7. When India gained independence on 15 August 1947, Bismillah Khan became the first Indian to greet the
nation with his shehnai. He poured his heart out into Raag Kafi from the Red Fort to an audience which
included Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, who later gave his famous ‘Tryst with Destiny’ speech.
8. Bismillah Khan has given many memorable performances both in India and abroad. His first trip abroad was to Afghanistan where King Zahir Shah was so taken in by (attracted or charmed by) the maestro that he gifted him priceless Persian carpets and other souvenirs. (souvenirs: things given in memory of a place, person or event) The King of Afghanistan was not the only one to be fascinated with Bismillah’s music. Film director Vijay Bhatt was so impressed after hearing Bismillah play at a festival that he named a film after the instrument called Gunj Uthi Shehnai. The film was a hit, and one of Bismillah Khan’s compositions, “Dil ka khilona hai toot gaya ...,” turned out to be a nationwide chartbuster (record breaker)! Despite this huge success in the celluloid (old fashioned way of referring to films)world, Bismillah Khan’s ventures in film music were limited to two: Vijay Bhatt’s Gunj Uthi Shehnai and Vikram Srinivas’s Kannada venture(project that often involves risk, something which has a lot of risk), Sanadhi Apanna. “I just can’t come to terms with the artificiality and glamour of the film world,” he says with emphasis. (to lay stress on something)
9. Awards and recognition came thick and fast (he got a lot of awards and was recognized at many places). Bismillah Khan became the first Indian to be invited to perform at the prestigious Lincoln Centre Hall in the United States of America. He also took part in the World Exposition in Montreal, in the Cannes Art Festival and in the Osaka Trade Fair. So well-known did he become internationally that an auditorium in Teheran was named after him — Tahar Mosiquee Ustaad Bismillah Khan.
10. National awards like the Padmashri, the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Vibhushan were conferred (given, usually an award or a degree) on him.
11. In 2001, Ustaad Bismillah Khan was awarded India’s highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna. With the coveted (much desired) award resting on his chest and his eyes glinting with rare happiness he said, “All I would like to say is: Teach your children music, this is Hindustan’s richest tradition; even the West is now coming to learn our music.’’
12. In spite of having travelled all over the world — Khansaab as he is fondly called — is exceedingly fond of Banaras and Dumraon and they remain for him the most wonderful towns of the world. A student of his once wanted him to head a shehnai school in the U.S.A., and the student promised to recreate the atmosphere of Banaras by replicating (making a copy of something) the temples there. But Khansaab asked him if he would be able to transport River Ganga as well. Later he is remembered to have said, “That is why whenever I am in a foreign country, I keep yearning (longing, having a desire for something) to see Hindustan. While in Mumbai, I think of only Banaras and the holy Ganga. And while in Banaras, I miss the unique mattha of Dumraon.”
13. Ustaad Bismillah Khan’s life is a perfect example of the rich, cultural heritage of India, one that effortlessly accepts that a devout (believing strongly in a religion and obeying its laws and following its practices)
Muslim like him can very naturally play the shehnai every morning at the Kashi Vishwanath temple. Ustaad Bismillah Khan passed away on 21 August 2006 at the age of ninety after a prolonged illness. He was given a state funeral and the Government of India declared one day of national mourning.
The sound of the Shehnai began to be considered auspicious. And for this reason, it is still played in temples and is an indispensable component of any North Indian wedding. In the past, Shehnai was part of the naubat or traditional ensemble of nine instruments found at royal courts. Till recently it was used only in temples and weddings. The credit for bringing this instrument onto the classical stage goes to Ustad Bismillah Khan.
Born on 21 March, 1916, Bismillah belongs to a well-known family of musicians from Bihar. His grandfather, Rasool Bux Khan was the Shehnai-nawaz of the Bhojpur king’s court. His father, Paigambar Bux, and other paternal ancestors were also great Shehnai players.
Q1. Why did Aurangzeb ban the playing of pungi?
Ans. Aurangzeb banned the musical instrument called Pungi because he did not like its shrill and unpleasant sound.
Q2. How is a Shehnai different from a pungi?
Ans. The pungi was a reeded noisemaker. But unlike the pungi the Shehnai is a larger pipe with a natural hallow stem. It is larger and broader than the pungi. Seven holes are made on the body of the pipe.
Q3. Where was the Shehnai played traditionally? How did Bismillah Khan change this?
Ans. Traditionally the Shehnai was played in temples and on the occasions of wedding. The Shehnai playing was considered auspicious. Bismillah Khan gave a new look to it. He played Shehnai in films, other cultural festivals and fairs and in foreign countries also.
Q4. When and how did Bismillah Khan get his big break?
Ans. Bismillah Khan got his big break in 1938 with the opening of the All-India Radio in Lucknow. He soon became an often-heard Shehnai player on radio.
Q5. Where did Bismillah Khan play the Shehnai on 15 August 1947? Why was the event historic?
Ans. On August 15, 1947 Bismillah Khan became the first Indian to greet the nation with his Shehnai. He poured his heart out into Raag Kafi from Red Fort to an audience which included Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.
Q6. Why did Bismillah Khan refuse to start a Shehnai school in the USA?
Ans. Bismillah Khan is deeply associated with India especially Banaras and the Ganga. He says that he can’t imagine living happily in the USA without Banaras and the Ganga. So, he refused to start a Shehnai school in the USA.
Q7. Find at least two instances in the text which tell you that Bismillah Khan loves India and Banaras.
Ans. (a) He says that whenever he is in a foreign country, he keeps yearning to see Hindustan. (b) He says that while he is in Mumbai he keeps thinking of only Banaras.
Q8. Why was this musical instrument named Shehnai?
Ans. This musical instrument was first played in the Shah’s chamber and was played by a ‘nai’. So, this instrument was named Shehnai.
Q9. What prize did boy Bismillah Khan earn? Why was he given this prize?
Ans. Bismillah Khan earned a big laddu weighing 1.25 kg. He was given this prize by the local Maharaja. Bismillah Khan earned this prize for singing the Bhojpuri ‘Chaita’ at the Bihariji Temple.
Q10. “15th August, 1947, the first Independence Day was the happiest day of his life.” Why?
Ans. On the first Independence Day, Bismillah Khan played the Shehnai at the ramparts of the Red Fort in Delhi. Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru had invited him to play the Shehnai there. It was a great honour for him. So, it was the happiest day of his life.
Q11. Why is Bismillah Khan so attached to the Ganga?
Ans. Bismillah Khan is greatly attached to the Ganga. He had spent his childhood playing and practising Shehnai on the banks of the Ganga. He gets inspiration from the Ganga. He cannot imagine his life happy if he is away from her. He loves the Ganga very much.
Q12. Write a note on the origin of the Shehnai.
Ans. It is said that in the past a musical instrument called pungi used to be played in palaces before the Kings and Nawabs. But Aurangzeb did not like the shrill and unpleasant sound of the pungi. So, he banned the playing of this musical instrument in the royal residence. There was a barber who belonged to a family of musicians. He had access to the royal palace. He tried hard to improve the tonal quality of the instrument. He chose a pipe with a natural hollow stem that was longer and broader than the original pungi. He carved seven holes on the body of the instrument. When he played on it, an impressive sonorous tonal sound was produced. The barber played it before the king and his courtiers. Everybody was impressed. The instrument was called Shehnai because it was first played in the Shah’s chamber and was invented by a ‘nai’ (barber).
To enjoy Detailed Explanation of these questions refer the video
Q:1. Who banned the playing of the pungi in the royal residence?
(a) Emperor Aurangzeb
(b) Emperor Akbar
(c) Emperor Shah Jahan
(d) Emperor Jahangir
Ans. (a) Emperor Aurangzeb
Q:2. Who decided to improve the tonal quality of the pungi?
(a) a businessman
(b) a courtier
(c) a king’s minister
(d) a barber of a family of professional musicians
Ans. (d) a barber of a family of professional musicians
Q:3. Which instrument is associated with Bismillah Khan?
Ans. (d) Shehnai
Q:4. Bismillah belongs to a well-known family of musicians from:
Ans. (a) Bihar
Q:5. Who was the first Indian to get the nations’ highest civilian award?
(a) Ustaad Amjad Ali Khan
(b) Ustaad Jakir Hussain
(c) Ustaad Rehmat Ali
(d) Ustaad Bismillah Khan
Ans. (d) Ustaad Bismillah Khan
Q:6. Where did Bismillah learn to play the Shehnai?
(a) in Allahabad
(b) in Banaras
(c) in Patna
(d) in Delhi
Ans. (b) in Banaras
Q:7. Who was the first Indian to greet the nation with his shehnai on 15 August 1947?
(a) Amjad Ali Khan
(b) Pt. Ravi Shanker
(c) Bismillah Khan
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Bismillah Khan
Q:8. Where did Bismillah Khan play the shehnai on 15th August 1947?
(a) The Taj Mahal
(b) The Red Fort
(c) The Char Minar
(d) The Gateway of India
Ans. (b) The Red Fort
Q:9. Where was Bismillah’s first trip to abroad?
(a) the U.S.A.
Ans. (d) Afghanistan
Q:10. Which film is named after Bismillah’s instrument?
(b) Gunj Uthi Shehnai
(c) Sanadhi Apanna
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) Gunj Uthi Shehnai
Q:11. Where is an auditorium named after Bismillah Khan?
(a) in Afghanistan
(b) in Baghdad
(c) in Tehran
(d) in Pakistan
Ans. (c) in Tehran
Q:12. When was Bismillah Khan awarded the Bharat Ratna?
(a) in 2002
(b) in 1999
(c) in 1998
(d) in 2001
Ans. (d) in 2001
1. The (shehnai, pungi) was a ‘reeded noisemaker.’ 2. (Bismillah Khan, A barber, Ali Bux) transformed the pungi into a shehnai. 3. Bismillah Khan’s paternal ancestors were (barbers, professional, musi-cians). 4. Bismillah Khan leamt to play the shehnai from (Ali Bux, Paigambar Bux, Ustad Faiyaaz Khan). 5. Bismillah Khan’s first trip abroad was to (Afghanistan, U.S.A., Canada).
1. the home of royal people
2. the state of being alone
3. a part which is absolutely necessary (2)
4. to do something not done before (5)
5. without much effort (13)
6. quickly and in large quantities (9) and
1. When something is revived, it (remains dead/lives again).
2. When a government bans something, it wants it (stopped/started).
3. When something is considered auspicious, (welcome it/avoid it).
4. When we take to something, we find it (boring/interesting).
5. When you appreciate something, you (find it good and useful/find it of no use).
6. When you replicate something, you do it (for the first time/for the second time).
7. When we come to terms with something, it is (still upsetting/no longer upsetting).
Ans. 1. lives again 2. stopped 3. welcome it 4. interesting 5. find it good and useful 6. for the second time 7. no longer upsetting