|1||You may go.||(permission)|
|2||May I borrow your pen?||(permission)|
|3||It may rain today.||(possibility)|
|4||May you live long!||(wish)|
|5||He said that he might help Gopal.||(Used as past tense of may)|
|6||He might stand first.||(probability)|
|7||Might I use your car?||(permission).|
Note :- In asking for permission, the use of might is more polite than may.
|1||I can speak both English and French.||(ability)|
|2||You can go home now.||(permission)|
|3||You cannot play here.||(inability)|
|4||It can happen to anyone.||(possibility)|
|5||You can climb up the tree.||(ability)|
|6||I could help Hari.||(ability)|
|7||She could make a speech.||(Used as past tense of can)|
|8||Could you tell me the time?||(request)|
|9||If I had money||I could buy a shirt.|
|10||(Conditional possibility)||Could you call Mohan on the phone?|
|11||(Polite request)||If they knew it|
|12||they could have come back.||(Conditional possibility)|
|1||He said he would write to Mohan.||(Past tense of will)|
|2||Would you close the window?||(request)|
|3||If I were rich||I would do it.|
|4||(Supposed condition)||You should work hard.|
|5||(advice)||We should not tell lies.|
|6||(obligation)||They should have come by now.|
|7||(probability)||We should plant more trees.|
|1||We ought to respect our parents.||(duty)|
|2||You ought not to speak ill of others.||(Moral obligation)|
|3||He must see a doctor at once.||(advice)|
|4||We must be back by evening.||(necessity)|
|5||The students must follow the rules of the school.||(duty)|
|6||You must bring your text books every day.||(necessity)|
We have already learnt that Auxiliaries that express the mode of action denoted by the main verbs, are called Modals.
वे helping verbs जो main verb के mode (कार्य-विधि) को व्यक्त करते हैं, Modals कहलाते हैं।. मुख्य Modals हैं – shall, will, should, would, can, could, may, might, must, need, ought to, used to, dare
(i) ये काल्पनिक action जैसे सामर्थ्य (ability), शक्ति (power), अनुमति (permission), प्रार्थना (request), सम्भावना (possibility), इच्छा (willingness) आदि को व्यक्त करते हैं।
(ii) ये कभी अकेले नहीं आते। ये सदैव main verb के साथ प्रयुक्त होते हैं। Modal auxiliary का उपयोग अकेले नहीं
होता किन्तु पूरे verb के साथ होता है ।
You must run much faster.
(तुम्हें बहुत तेजी से भागना चाहिये)
(iii) इन पर subject के number, gender अथवा person का कोई प्रभाव नहीं पड़ता। Modal auxiliary, number या person या subject के साथ नहीं बदलता
I can do.
You can do.
We can do.
He can do.
They can do.
(iv) इनके साथ infinitive without 'to' अर्थात् Ist form of Verb का प्रयोग होता है । परन्तु ought और used के साथ to infinitive का प्रयोग होता है ।
(v) इनकी forms नहीं होती।
(vi) Tenses में इनका प्रयोग नहीं होता।
Modal use of Auxiliaries
नीचे लिखे वाक्यों की ओर देखो:
|You||may||go and play||now.|
|He||will||take up||the job.|
|We||shall||be||in Bombay tomorrow|
|He||should||see||a doctor at once.|
|They||would||want||to attend the party.|
|We||could||get||to the station well in time.|
|You||needn’t||worry||about this matter.|
|He||dare not||face||his father.|
|You||ought||to obey||the rules of the road.|
|He||used||to play||tennis in the evenings.|
दूसरे column में दिये गये शब्दों को 'helping' या auxiliarics कहते हैं । इनको कहते हैं Modal auxiliaries. यह verbs दूसरी क्रियाओं के साथ मिलकर काम करने के ढंग को व्यक्त करते हैं। इनसे पता चलता है कि किसी कार्य के प्रति हमारा दृष्टिकोण क्या है? यह काम हो सकता है, जरूर होगा, होना सम्भव है या नहीं है ।
1. You may go.
तुम चाहो तो जा सकते हो ।
2. Mohan can swim.
मोहन में तैरने की क्षमता है।
Modals के रूप में Will/Shall का प्रयोग करते समय 1st Person Pronouns के Will तथा 2nd Person और 3rd Person के Pronouns shall प्रयोग करें
(i) Shall भविष्य को प्रकट करता है जब कि subject I या we हो । जैसे :
We shall start working by tomorrow.
(ii) For Promise
Example: I will return your money tomorrow.
She shall get a cash prize if she wins the contest.
She shall get her share of Land.
(iii) For Willingness:
He will help you, anyway.
(iv) For Determination
I will come to your party whatever may happen.
(v) For Suggestions: Shall को जब प्रश्नवाचक के रूप में प्रयोग किया जाता है तो उस का अर्थ होता है सुझाव या
कोई चीज देना ।
Shall I write this for you?
Shall I give you lift in my car?
Shall I close the window?
(vi) For Order/Command:
You shall type all these letters before going home.
(vii) for Threat: नीचे दिये गये वाक्यों में shall आज्ञा या धमकी की अभिव्यक्ति करता है।
They shall finish this work by tomorrow.
They shall suffer for their bad deeds.
You shall give me whatever you have.
(viii) For Offers
Shall I help you?
|1||I say she shall do it.||(आदेश)|
|2||You shall get a camera if you stand first.||(वचन)|
|3||He shall be punished for his rude behaviour.||(धमकी)|
|4||You shall apologize for your mischief.||(आदेश)|
|5||Shall I use your scooter?||(Permission)|
|6||I shall gladly visit your house.||(Willingness)|
|7||Shall she accompany you?||(Expectation)|
|8||I shall be drowned and nobody will help me.||(Probability)|
|9||I will be drowned and nobody shall help me.||(Determination)|
(i) Will का प्रयोग future tense बनाने में होता है ।
He will leave for Jammu tomorrow.
(ii) नीचे दिये गये वाक्यों में will स्वीकृति को बताता है ।
I will do this job as far as I can.
Will you please do this work?
Will you please sit down?
(iii) नीचे दिये गये गये वाक्यों में Will का प्रयोग इच्छा या प्रण की अभिव्यक्ति करता है। जैसे :
I will come as soon as I am well.
I won't write for more than half an hour.
(iv) नीचे लिखे वाक्यों में will निश्चय को प्रकट करता है।
We will do our best.
We will fight out this evil.
(v) नीचे लिखे वाक्यों में will भविष्यवाणी को प्रकट करता है। जैसे
If you work hard, you will pass.
He will never disbelieve me.
Water will always flow down the hill.
|1||Will you have a cup of tea with me?||(Polite Invitation)|
|2||I will accompany you without fail.||(Commitment)|
|3||Will you keep mum?||(Polite Request)|
|4||You will have heard about his success.||(Assumption)|
|5||He will never betray me.||(Prediction)|
|6||Will you accede to my request?||(Intention जानने के लिए)|
|7||She will often wander in the park.||(बार-बार होने वाली घटना को दर्शाने के लिए)|
|8||We shall pay the fee next month.||(Understanding)|
|9||I will pay a visit to the Sai Bai Temple this year.||(Intention)|
|10||This bucket will hold the whole milk.||(capacity)|
1. She ………. be set right.
2 You …… give me whatever you have.
3 My teacher ……..not come to school tomorrow.
4 We ………fight to the last.
5. He ……. climb the difficult cliff.
6 You …….. deposit your fee by 1st July.
7 Seema ……….take my help.
8 I ……. attend the meeting.
9 They ……. get a treat.
10 They say that ………..they marry their daughter by November.
ANSWERS: 1. shall, 2 shall, 3. shall, 4. will, 5. shall, 6. shall, 7. shall, 8. will, 9. shall, 10 shall
(i) For Present Ability (वर्तमान योग्यता के लिए) Can का प्रयोग ability (योग्यता) प्रकट करने के लिए होता
I can speak five languages.
He can do a lot of work.
The teacher cannot teach you now, he can teach you only tomorrow.
(ii) For asking and giving of Permission with juniors (अपने छोटों से आज्ञा मांगने व देने के लिए)
नीचे दिये गये वाक्यों में can का प्रयोग आज्ञा देने की अभिव्यक्ति में प्रकट किया गया है।
You can leave this post now.
You cannot touch this book.
Can I sleep here?
Can I use your pen, Sunil?
'Cannot help' एक idiom है इसका प्रयोग तब किया जाता है जब हम एक ऐसी स्थिति को बताना चाहते हैं जिससे बचा न जा सके। जैसे:
I cannot help going there.
(iii) Possibility with a condition (सशर्त सम्भावना के लिए)
Example: You can pass the examination if you work hard.
(iv) For Capacity
Example: I can lift this heavy box.
(v) For possibility
Example: He can reach here anytime.
(i) Past of 'Can'
Could' का प्रयोग 'can के Past tense में होता है ।
He said he could finish this job in time.
I could pass the examination if I had worked hard.
(ii) Past Ability
नीचे लिखे वाक्यों में 'could' का प्रयोग भूतकाल में [ योग्यता (ability) प्रकट करता है।
I could do without books for six months.
We could buy this cloth at a cheaper rate a year ago.
I could drive a car before the accident.
I could solve the sum when I was only ten years old.
(iii) Most Polite Request (अति नम्र निवेदन के लिए)
Could' का प्रयोग प्रार्थना को भी प्रकट करता है। जैसे :
Could I go there for some time?
Could you tell me the time?
Could I talk to the principal for some time?
(iv) Past Possibility (भूतकाल की संभावना के लिए) नीचे लिखे वाक्यों में 'could' का प्रयोग किसी सम्भावित
स्थिति को भो प्रकट करता है। …
If we had the money,we could do a lot of things.
You could get a first division if you had worked hard.
1. Our electrician ……… touch a naked wire.
2. He...........lift heavy loads when he was a young boy.
3. We …...find new meanings in a dictionary.
4. My grandfather …….. write French.
5. …….. I take these books with me?
6. ……. you keep quiet?
7. The doctor said that he ............help her no more.
8. She............ have come, if he had liked.
9. Everybody ………. make a mistake.
10. Who........... have made such a mistake?
ANSWERS: 1. can, 2. could, 3. can, 4. could, 5. Can, 6. Can, 7. could, 8. could, 9. can, 10 could.
(i) For a positive/strong Possibility: 'May' सम्भावना की अभिव्यक्ति करता है।
He may not achieve his aim.
It may rain to night.
It may rain today because black clouds are gathering in the sky.
(ii) For Permission, वाक्यों में may का प्रयोग आज्ञा की अभिव्यक्ति करता है और वह 'can' से अधिक शिष्टाचार
You may collect your money.
May I take your pen?
May I come in, please?
(iii) For Wishes and Blessings (कामना एवम् आशीर्वाद के लिए) 'May' इच्छा की अभिव्यक्ति करता है।
May he live long?
May she prosper in life?
May God bless you!
(iv) For purpose (उद्देश्य बताने के लिए so that से पहले Verb की 1st formलगी होती है।
We eat so that we may live.
(i) Might सम्भावना को प्रकट करता है। किन्तु May से कम | जैसे :
Might I make this offer?
Might I speak to you?
(ii) As the past of "MAY": Might का प्रयोग May के Past tense में होता है। जैसे :
He said, "May I go there?"
He said that he might go there.
He might have reached in time if the bus was not late.
(ii) For Weak or Negative Possibility (दुर्बल अथवा नकारात्मक सम्भावना के लिए).
It might rain today as the sun is shining brightly.
(iii) For past wish.
Example: I wished that I might pass the examination.
(iv) For purpose उद्देश्य बताने के लिए, so that से पहले verb की IInd form.
Example: He died so that his country might survire.
1. ……. there were no wars!
2 She ................ go there if it rains.
3. Run fast so that you ……….. catch the train.
4. We eat so that we ………. live.
5. He asked me if he …………… come to my house on Sunday.
6. .................reach there on time because I am already late.
7. ……… I kiss you?
8. God bless you with a son!
9. She ……… have gone out because her clothes were wet.
10. ………I go to take water?
ANSWERS: 1. can, 2. could, 3. can, 4. could, 5. Can, 6. Can, 7. could, 8. could, 9. can, 10 could.
(i) Moral Duty/Advice: 'Ought' का प्रयोग कत्तव्य, नैतिकता या सामाजिक कत्तव्य की अभिव्यक्ति के लिए किया जाता
है। इस का प्रयोग भी should की तरह होता है। इसके बाद जो verb का प्रयोग होता है वह to-की-form लेता है। जैसे
नीचे दिये गये वाक्यों मैं देखें -
You ought to do your duty.
You ought to obey your parents.
You ought to work hard.
You should/ought to respect your elders
(ii) For General Suggestions
You should work hard.
(iii) In the beginning of an affirmative sentence in the meaning of sentences
Should the pain return, you must consult a doctor?
(iv) With the conjunction 'Lest'.
Walk fast, lest you should miss the class.
(v) 'Should का प्रयोग "Indirect Speech' में 'shall' के Past Tense में किया जाता है। जैसे कि :
He said, "They shall come here on Sunday."
He said that they should come there on Sunday.
(vi) 'Should' का प्रयोग दूसरों को उपदेश देने के लिए भी किया जाता है। जैसे :
Children should not speak dirty words.
We should go for a walk every day.
(vii) 'Should' का प्रयोग ताकिक आवश्यकता या सम्भावना को प्रकट करता है। जैसे :
Our books should be sold by now.
They should be in Delhi now.
(viii) नीचे लिखे वाक्यों मे should का प्रयोग एक सम्भावनापूर्ण स्थिति को प्रकट करता है।
Should I go there, I will finish my job.
Should he work hard, he will pass.
(ix) 'Should' का प्रयोग आज्ञा या प्रार्थना की अभिव्यक्ति के लिए करते हैं। "
I should like to say that I have done everything for the poor.
|1||You should write on both sides of the pages.||(Polite command)|
|2||Should they play carefully they will win.||(Probable Condition)|
|3||That she should reject my proposal.||(Surprise)|
|4||Dinner should be ready by now.||(Logical Necessity)|
|5||She should be at home now.||(Probability)|
(i) For Necessity: Must का प्रयोग किसी आशा या आवश्यकता की अभिव्यक्ति के लिए भी किया जाता है। इस ढंग से
'Must' का प्रयोग प्रश्नवाचक या नकारात्मक रूप से नहीं किया जाता | नीचे लिखे वाक्यों को देखो :
If he is Mohan, I must see him.
There must be mistake somewhere.
We must walk fast or we shall be late for class.
(ii) For Compulsion: To repeat a thing, an obliation, a necessity is displayed by using Must
The Train must leave by 10 PM.
You must see a doctor at once.
I must do the homework first otherwise the teacher will punish me.
(iii) For Command (आदेश के लिए)
We must attack the enemy tonight.
(iv) For duty (कर्तव्य को व्यक्त करने के लिए)
A servant must obey his master.
(v) For prohibition (मनाही को व्यक्त करने के लिए)
You must not touch electricity.
(i) Needn’t or don’t have to
You needn’t go there.
You don’t have to stay.
(ii) Mustn’t means that what is NOT ALLOWED
You mustn’t touch fire.
You mustn’t use my cycle.
(i) For showing absence of force of necessity, compulsion or command- (आदेश की तीव्रता के अभाव को दर्शन के
You ought to read R. Gupta's book of composition.
We need not take a taxi, there is enough time to bus.
(Need) का प्रयोग प्रत्य: Not के साथ होता है और प्रश्नवाचक में not के बिना प्रयोग किया जाता है।
Need not इस विचार को प्रकट करता है कि विवशता कोई नहीं। इस तरह से यह Must का विपरीत है।
A. Must I do this job?
B. No, You need not.
A. Must I finish the job within two hours.
B. You need not, you can take more time.
नीच लिखे उदाहरणों से पता चलता हैं कि must, need not और must not किस स्थिति में प्रयोग किये जाते हैं।
You must see him to-day.
You must-read seriously.
You must wait.
You need n't see him today.
You need n't read seriously.
You need n't wait.
You must not see him today.
You must not read seriously.
You must n't wait.
(ii) Need के साथ प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य
Need I wait for him any longer?
Need I tell you all know?
(iii) 'Need' के प्रयोग से बने कुछ और वाक्यों को देखें ।
You need only solve this problem.
There is only one book more 1 need refer to..
I needed more clothes but I have only one shirt.
1.The game ………. start on time.
2. ……….I finish all the work today?
3. You ………. buy a new cycle, you can take mine.
4 Death ……… come one day.
5 We ……… do our duty.
6 You …….. visit the place, just send a message.
7. You ……… light a match there is enough light
8. You ……… complete your homework by 5.00 pm.
9. You …….. practice what you say.
10. She ……… speak a word in this matter.
ANSWERS: 1. must, 2. Need, 3. need not, 4. must, 5. must, 6. need not, 7 need not, 8. must, 9 must, 10. need not.
(i) For more than one habitual action of past-(अतीत की एक से अधिक आदतों के लिए)
When I was in hostel, I used to get up at 4.00 in the morning. Then I would go for a walk.
(ii) As the past of Will/Shall in Indirect Narration (Indirect Narration will/shall
Past के रूप में) (a) नीचे दिए गए बाक्यों में 'would' का प्रयोग 'shall' और 'will' के Past tense में होता
Direct Speech : He said, "I will go to meet him."
Indirect Speech: He said that he would go to meet him.
The teacher told us that he would not come to school the next day.
(iii) नीचे दिए गए वाक्यों में would का प्रयोग प्रतिदिन करने वाला काम या विशेष गतिविधि को प्रकट करता है
किन्तु यह गतिविधि भूतकाल में हुई थी।
Once every month he would go to church for praying.
Every evening he would pray to God in the temple.
(iv) With Rather -('Rather)
I would rather stay home than going out in the sun.
(v) For asking choice or preference (किसी से पंसद, प्राथमिकता पूछने के लिए )
Would you like to take cold or hot?
(vi)For Polite Request: Would का प्रयोग किसी सुझाव या प्रार्थना की अभिव्यक्ति के लिए होता है। जैसे :
Would you like to have a cup of tea?
Would you follow me?
Would you mind moving a little?
(vii) For strong but unfulfilled wishes (सशक्त किन्तु अपूर्ण इच्छाओं के लिए)
Would that I were the President of America.
(viii) Would का प्रयोग किसी इच्छा को भी प्रकट करता है । 'Would like' का प्रयोग इच्छा या किसी चीज को पसन्द की
अभिव्यक्ति करता है।
I would like to visit that spot.
I would like to go with him.
I would rather sleep than go with you.
I would rather work than beg from others.
(ix) In 'If clauses-
If you worked hard, you would pass.
He would not have slipped if he had been careful.
(x) Would' का प्रयोग किसी काल्पनिक परिणाम या स्थिति को भी अभिव्यक्ति करता है :
I would make you rich if I won a lottery.
If I were a doctor, I would serve the country.
1. Take medicine regularly lest you ……. fall ill again
2 ………..that I were an angel!
3. ………..you do it for me?
4 The teacher told me that I …..pass.
5. When she was a student she …….. sleep for hours.
6. You …….. stop drinking.
7. The king said that he ……. meet his family next year.
8. We …………try to be helpful to others.
ANSWERS: 1. should, 2. Would, 3. Would, 4. would, 5 would, 6 should, 7. would, 8. would.
'Dare' का प्रयोग उन वाक्यों में किया जाता है। जिसमें हम 'fearlessness (निर्भीकता) का भाव देना चाहते हों।
इसका प्रयोग एक साधारण क्रिया के रूप में भी किया जा सकता है। जैसे इन वाक्यों में:---
How dare you behave like this?
I daren't see the principal without permission.
He did not dare to talk to him.
I dare say वाक्य का अर्थ है कि ऐसा सम्भव दिखाई देता है।
(i) To express Absence of Courage (साहस का अभाव अभिव्यक्त करने के लिए)
I dare not show my report card to my father.
1. How ……. you talk to me like this?
2 I ……….. go over the bridge.
3. She ……….. ask any more questions.
4. We ………. do the homework today, tomorrow is a holiday.
5. My mother …….. go out at night.
6. You ……. worry, I am here.
7. She …….. oppose me.
8. Does he ……… to go there?
9. ………. you face all these odds?
10 His sister ……….. board a train.
ANSWERS:1. dare, 2. dare not, 3. need not, 4. need not, 5. dare not, 6. need not, 7. dare not, 8. need, 9. need/dare, 10. dare not.
(i) Used to + verb भूतकाल की किसी आदत की अभिव्यक्ति के लिए प्रयोग करते हैं। वर्तमान में किसी भी आदत की बताने
के लिये used to के साथ present simple tense का प्रयोग होता है ।
नीचे के वाक्यों को देखें:
My mother used to go to temple daily when she was able to walk.
He used to take exercise every morning; now he has stopped it.
He used to visit us daily; but now he doesn't.
(ii) भूतकाल में किसी जगह या चीज के अस्तित्व का प्रदर्शन करने के लिए भी used to का प्रयोग करते हैं। जैसे:
There used to be a building at this place long ago.
(iii)'Used to' का नकारात्मक रूप
He did not used to drink; but now he drinks.
He used not to go to films, but now he often goes.
(iv) 'Used to' के साथ प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य
Used he to drink?
Used not he to smoke?
(v) 'Used to' का प्रयोग प्रायः होने वाली या न करने वाली आदतों या क्रियाओं को प्रकट करने के लिए होता है।
He is used to a lazy life.
(वह एक सुस्त जीवन बिताने का आदी है)
You have to get used to this way of life.
(तुम्हें इस प्रकार के जीवन का आदी होना पड़ेगा।
Najma ........ I borrow your bicycle?
Salma: I am sorry. The bicycle is out of order. Do you know a mechanic in this village to whom I...... take the bicycle?
Najma: I do not know but I ...... try to find someone who ...... repair your bicycle.
Ans.Can, may, shall, can.
2. Seeing a crow eating a piece of bread, a fox thought how it (a).... trick that fellow. It sad, ".
……. I talk to you, Sir?" The crow did not even look at the fox. The fox again said."..... (c) you please
a little attention to me? What a nice bird you are! Your voice ...... (d)... be very sweet. I am sure
(e) ...... sing very well. "The crow who...... (f) not be persuaded till then now looked at the fox.
It...... (g) have felt flattered. The crow said to itself. I'll show this fox how well I ...... (h)....
sing." It opened its beak. The piece of bread fell down and was eaten away quickly by the fox.
Ans.(a) could (b) May (c) Would (d) must (e) can (f) could (g) must (h) can
5(a) Don't eat this fruit. It...... be poisonous. This.... prove harmful for your health. This,
perhaps....... lead to death. Therefore, you …….. not eat this fruit. It ...... not be eaten raw. Before
eating, its skin... be removed.
Ans. Don't eat this fruit. It could be poisonous. This may prove harmful for your health. This, perhaps, could lead to death. Therefore, you should not eat this fruit. It must not be eaten raw. Before eating, its skin should be removed.
5(b) The Vidyut Board office has warned that they …….cut the electricity connection if I don't pay the bill
by today. So, I ……. go to the Vidyut Board office to pay the bill. I...... have paid the amount yesterday
but the office was closed. I ...... finish my work immediately and rush to the Board office so that I......
pay the bill before 2 p. m. I...... be late, perhaps.
Ans. The Vidyut Board office has warned that they will cut the electricity connection if I don't pay the bill by today. So. I have to go to the Vidyut Board office to pay the bill. I would have paid the amount yesterday but the office was closed. I will finish my work immediately and rush to the Board office so that I can pay the bill before 2 p. m. I may be late, perhaps.
5(c) Accidents ...... happen anywhere and ……… result in injuries. Correct first aid at the earlier
stage...... mean a difference between life and death. It …... prevent any permanent loss. A knowledge of
what ……… be done in such cases till the doctor arrives ...... always be helpful to the common man.
Ans. Accidents can happen anywhere and may result in injuries. Correct first aid at the earlier stage could mean a difference between life and death. It might prevent any permanent loss. A knowledge of what should be done in such cases till the doctor arrives can always be helpful to the common man.
5(d) An average child...... speak clearly by the time he is three or four years old. Some children at this
stage...... experience some difficulties. As a caring parent you...... do many things. Read to the child
whenever you ...... but you …… never do this in a tense, loud voice. The child...... know that you love him.
Ans. An average child can speak clearly by the time he is three or four years old. Some children at this stage may experience some difficulties. As a caring parent you can do many things. Read to the child whenever you can but you should never do this in a tense. loud voice. The child must know that you love him.
5(e) Milk is a complete food, full of vitamins and proteins. Children ……..drink it regularly otherwise they
…….. suffer from under-nourishment. Elders ………. also take it but those who ……. not afford it ……….. take
pulses, fruits and vegetables as an alternative. We ……… purchase milk of good quality from milk booths
opened by the Government.
Ans. Milk is a complete food, full of vitamins and proteins. Children should drink it regularly otherwise they might suffer from under-nourishment. Elders must also take it but those who cannot afford it should take pulses, fruits and vegetables as an alternative. We should purchase milk of good quality from milk booths opened by the Government.
|1||Sheela ……… lift the box by herself.|
|2||………… you call back tomorrow?|
|3||You ………not keep a gun without a valid licence.|
|4||I ………. speak Sanskrit when I was ten years old.|
|5||……….. I use your phone for a week?|
|6||She …………. be successful if she had tried hard.|
|7||She told me that she ……. read very fast.|
|8||……….. I have a smoke here?|
|9||…….. come in Sir?|
|10||She ……. see me if she wishes.|
|11||She ………. be able to remember what you said.|
|12||………. I have a word with you?|
|13||We ……… leave for Delhi tomorrow.|
|14||………. we take a taxi?|
|15||Mind it! You ………. not make a noise.|
|16||If you do not work hard you ……. fail.|
|17||You ………buy a new pen; they this one leaks.|
|18||When I was young I ………… write Hindi verse. (capacity)|
|19||She ………… enter college next year. (possibility)|
|20||You ………… stay till you have finished your work. (compulsion)|
|21||She ….... not run as fast as you. (ability)|
|22||You ……… have a treat if you are nice. (promise)|
|23||One ………..smoke in the presence of ladies. (prohibition)|
|24||She works hard lest she ………. fail. (purpose)|
|25||I ……… swim well when I was younger. (ability)|
|26||We ……….obey the laws of our country. (obligation)|
|27||……….. you prepare a cup of tea for me please? (Polite request)|
|28||………… your future be bright. (wish)|
|29||We ……. obey the rules. (moral obligation)|
|30||I ………. speak English fluently. (present ability)|
|31||You ……. not touch those exhibits. health. (prohibition)|
|32||You ………. take care of your health. (advice)|
|33||He walked fast lest he ……….. miss the train. (purpose)|
|34||I ………. climb tall trees when I was younger. (ability)|
|35||You ........come in school uniform. (obligation)|
|36||………. you prosper in your life. (blessing)|
|37||We ……… obey the laws of the country. (moral obligation)|
|38||I …….. solve this problem. (ability)|
|39||We ……… obey our parents. (moral obligation)|
|40||I ………. rather starve than beg. (preference)|
|41||…….. you live long! (prayer)|
|42||She ………dance very well. (ability)|
|43||You ………. go now. (permission)|
|44||A servant ………obey his master. (Moral duty)|
|45||You …….not go against the wishes of your parents. (Prohibition or negative command)|
|46||If only it ………. stop hailing. (Hopeless wish)|
|47||I ………solve this sum. (ability/capacity)|
|48||He …………. to observe fast on every Tuesday. (a habit in the past)|
|49||You ……….. help the needy. (duty/obligation)|
|50||Servant ……. obey his master. (necessity)|
|51||You ……….. to respect your elders. (moral/social obligation)|
|52||…….. that I were young again. (Hopeless wish)|
|53||…….. I see you again on Monday. (Polite request)|
|1||You need not smoke here. For it is prohibited. (Correct it)|
|2||I ………….. helped you if you had asked me. (Supply the correct form of 'can')|
|3||Show the road to the station please. (Re-write using 'could' to make it even more polite)|
|4||They would walk till late in the night. (Re-write the sentence removing 'would' without any change of meaning)|
|5||The ………not pass. (Fill in the blank with a suitable modal)|
|6||You should come here two days back. (Correct it)|
|7||Attack: law us protect can the against material. (Rearrange the words to form a proper sentence)|
|8||Raju ought not ………. done this mischief (Fill in the blank with the proper auxiliary)|
|9||How dare you to talk to me like this? (Correct it)|
|10||Will I shut the door for you? (Correct it)|
|11||He could lend you his bicycle if you had asked him. (Correct it)|
|12||Frame a sentence using the expression 'might as well.''|
|13||Would you like some more lemonade? (Re-write using the expression 'would care')|
|14||Can you lend me a book please? (Make it more polite)|
|15||You will have your money back I promise you. (Correct it)|
|16||I could rather have a glass of milk not tea. (Correct it)|
|17||You-never tease the poor blind. (Fill in the space with a modal to show prohibition)|
|18||It is surprising that he-fail in spite of hard work. (Fill in the blanks with a suitable auxiliary)|
|19||The noise doesn't disturb me; I am quite ………to it. (Fill in the blank)|
|20||Walk fast lest you would be late. (Correct it)|
|21||If he had worked hard he …… (Complete it)|
|22||I agreed to preside over the function. (Rewrite the sentence using should')|
|23||He worked hard so that he would pass. (Correct it)|
|24||Work hard lest you should may not fail. (Correct it)|
|25||I wish it will stop raining. (Correct it)|
|26||You must be leaving now. I ……….meet you at the railway station.(future)|
|27||You ………come to the party won't you ? (future)|
|28||I ……….walk twenty five kilometers in five hours. (Present ability)|
|29||You ………….leave those papers on my desk and go. (Permission)|
|30||I am afraid the weather ……..not improve for another two or three days. (Probability)|
|31||You be able to see him if you hurried up. (slight possibility)|
|32||You--not hide from them what they should know. (moral obligation)|
|33||You ………..go (permission) if you ……….(compulsion).|
|34||If he ……..(ability) come as far as my neighbour's house why……. (ability) he come to mine?|
|35||He ………apologise or face the consequences. (command)|
|36||You ……….not ask for any more leave for the rest of the year. (prohibition)|
|37||If you ………. put in a word to the manager I ………be very grateful. (polite or request)|
|38||I will wait (willingness) if I …….. (obligation)|
|39||You ……..(duty) take the initiative and do things.|
|40||You ……….wait (advisability) till you are asked to do something.|
|41||If ………..rain soon or the crops would die. (necessity)|
|42||You ………not come to see me in my office. It is enough if you give me a ring. (absence of compulsion)|
|43||……….we go to Nagarjunasagar for our picnic ? (suggestion)|
|44||He ………..tell his father the whole truth. (absence of courage)|
|45||Gokhale and Bose …….sit for hours together talking Gandhiji ………sit and listen eagerly. (habitual action in the past)|
|46||We …….not go abroad to learn English; we can learn it well right here. (absence of compulsion)|
|47||I …….rather stay at home than go for a walk in this weather. (preference)|
1. (Should, Would, Shall) you like another cup of tea?
2 I wish he (should, will, would) not play his radio so loudly.
3 I (am to leave, would leave, was to have left) on Monday. But on Monday I had a terrible cold, so I decided to wait till Wednesday.
4 He (used, is used, was used) to play hockey before his marriage.
5 (Shall, Will, Would) I carry the box into the room for you?
6. He (will, can, might) come, but I should be surprised.
7. I don't think I (shall, should, can) be able to go.
8. He (shall, will, dare) not do it unless he is asked to.
9. You (should, ought, would) be punctual.
10. I wish you (should, would, must) tell me earlier.
11. (Shall, Will, Would) I help you in this matter?
12. (Shall, should, would) you please do it for me?
13. She (shall, will, dare) sit outside her room for hours at a time, looking at the passing traffic.
14. I was afraid that if I asked him again, he (can, may, might) refuse.
15. You (ought, should, must) to pay your debts.
16. He said I (can, might, should) use his telephone at any time.
17. You (needn't, mustn't, won't) light a match; the room is full of gas.
18. If you (shall, should, would) see him, give him, give him this book.
19. He (would, used, ought) to be a clerk, but now he is a teacher.
20. You (needn't go, needn't have gone, didn't need to go) by bus; I could have given you, my scooter.
1. I borrow your car ? (can, may)
2. ……. you live long! (may, might)
3. Mohan ………..win the race. (might, could)
4. You ………. to obey orders. (should, ought)
5. Hari ………speak English well. (can, may)
6. You take exercise regularly. (should, must)
7. …….. you help me in this matter? (could, can)
8. If he is to stand first, he …….. work hard. (should, must)
9. You ……… now go home. (can, may)
10. Mohan said that he send for the doctor. (would, should)
1. May (permission)
2. Might (request)
3. Could (ability)
4. Can (permission, ability)
5. Would (past tense of will)
6. Should (advice)
7. Must (determination)
8. Could (past tense of can, request)
9. Ought to (duty)
10. Might (possibility, request)